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Table 2 Serum cytokines levels between healthy control, mild HFMD, severe EV-A71, and CV-A16 HFMD before treatment

From: Clinical characteristics and managements of severe hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 in Shanghai, China

Cytokine
(pg/mL)
Control (100)
M (IQR)
Mild (100)
M (IQR)
Severe EV-A71 (90)
M (IQR)
Severe CV-A16 (144)
M (IQR)
χ2 P
IL-1β 3.00(2.95,3.53)a 3.30(3.00,3.50)a 15.30(8.48,42.70)b 16.00(8.65,67.00)b 192.69 < 0.001
IL-2 441.00(350.25,543.25)a 460.00(356.75,574.00)a 1017.00(725.00,1472.00)b 1133.00(838.25,1500.75)b 142.29 < 0.001
IL-6 4.05(3.20,4.70)a 4.20(3.60,5.10) a 16.00(6.21,84.90)b 12.65(5.31,69.23)b 143.68 < 0.001
IL-8 46.00(36.75,52.75)a 47.00(38.00,52.00)a,b 221.50(53.13,652.50)c 63.45(21.43,478.75)a,d 85.25 < 0.001
IL-10 5.10(3.68,6.25)a 5.50(3.90,6.48)a 8.01(6.30,12.10)b 8.31(5.92,14.70)b 49.38 < 0.001
IFN-γ 4.00(1.60,6.50)a 5.70(2.50,10.10) a 44.50(37.75,52.00)b 58.40 (35.90,69.85)b 28.95 < 0.001
TNF-α 4.65(3.75,5.40)a 4.70(3.85,5.70)a 25.40(16.20,40.85)b 19.85 (13.93,50.88)b 146.90 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: M median, IQR interquartile range, IL interleukin, IFN, interferon, TNF tumor necrosis factor
  2. a vs b, b vs c, a vs c, statistical significance
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