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Table 2 Predictors of late (> 3 months of age) or no receipt of DTP1 vaccination among urban Dar es Salaam (n = 11,189) and rural Morogoro (n = 19,767) infants

From: Determinants of delayed or incomplete diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in parallel urban and rural birth cohorts of 30,956 infants in Tanzania

Characteristic Urban Dar es Salaam Rural Morogoro Region p-value for interaction by site
Total N Late or no receipt of DTP1
n (%)
Multivariate Relative Risk (95% CI) p value Total N Late or no receipt of DTP1
n (%)
Multivariate Relative Risk (95% CI) p value
Total cohort 11,189 1283 (11.47%) 19,767 1808 (9.15%)  
Infant sex
 Male 5712 669 (11.71%) 1.04 (0.94–1.16) 0.40 10,517 983 (9.35%) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 0.26 0.93
 Female 5473 613 (11.20%) Reference   9250 826 (8.93%) Reference   
Parity
 Firstborn 2577 332 (12.88%) Reference   4865 514 (10.57%) Reference   0.17
 2nd-4th child 5239 566 (10.80%) 0.95 (0.82–1.10) 0.48 9083 808 (8.90%) 0.83 (0.73–0.94) 0.003  
 5th or greater child 686 80 (11.66%) 1.05 (0.81–1.35) 0.73 3006 330 (10.98%) 1.05 (0.89–1.25) 0.53  
Birthweight
 Low birthweight (< 2500 g) 967 113 (11.69%) 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.56 2741 184 (6.71%) 0.69 (0.60–0.80) <  0.001 0.009
 Normal birthweight (≥2500 g) 10,208 1167 (11.43%) Reference   17,026 1625 (9.54%) Reference   
Gestational Age
 Preterm (< 37 weeks) 1511 172 (11.38%) 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 0.97 1887 189 (10.02%) 0.99 (0.85–1.16) 0.91 0.60
 Term (≥37 weeks) 6430 674 (10.48%) Reference   9978 898 (9.00%) Reference   
Size for gestational Age
 SGA (<10th percentile) 729 77 (10.56%) 0.88 (0.71–1.11) 0.28 1572 134 (8.52%) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.40 0.76
 No SGA (≥10th percentile) 7084 755 (10.66%) Reference   9987 918 (9.19%) Reference   
Maternal age
  < 20 years 1835 247 (13.46%) 1.48 (1.23–1.78) <  0.001* 4517 446 (9.87%) 1.00 (0.86–1.15) 0.003* 0.23
 20–25 years 3269 340 (10.40%) 1.18 (1.01–1.39)   5266 513 (9.74%) 1.08 (0.96–1.22)   
 25–30 years 2825 247 (8.74%) Reference   5256 478 (9.09%) Reference   
 30–35 years 1396 121 (8.67%) 0.96 (0.78–1.18)   2744 208 (7.58%) 0.82 (0.70–0.96)   
  ≥ 35 years 589 54 (9.17%) 0.98 (0.73–1.31)   1397 107 (7.66%) 0.77 (0.62–0.94)   
Maternal education
 No formal schooling 466 58 (12.45%) 1.16 (0.90–1.50) 0.05* 2098 264 (12.58%) 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 0.17* 0.29
 Some primary 347 43 (12.39%) 1.09 (0.82–1.45)   1872 203 (10.84%) 1.10 (0.95–1.28)   
 Completed primary 7291 746 (10.23%) Reference   13,974 1169 (8.37%) Reference   
 Secondary plus 1656 144 (8.70%) 0.89 (0.74–1.06)   1225 107 (8.73%) 1.11 (0.91–1.35)   
Paternal education
 No formal schooling 189 20 (10.58%) 0.88 (0.58–1.35) 0.14* 1218 197 (16.17%) 1.59 (1.36–1.87) <  0.001* 0.04
 Some primary 221 38 (17.19%) 1.57 (1.16–2.11)   1481 177 (11.95%) 1.32 (1.13–1.53)   
 Completed primary 6631 686 (10.35%) Reference   14,588 1228 (8.42%) Reference   
 Secondary plus 2742 243 (8.86%) 0.93 (0.80–1.08)   1889 139 (7.36%) 0.93 (0.78–1.11)   
Wealth quintile
 Q1 (Poorest) 1577 208 (13.12%) 1.43 (1.13–1.80) 0.01* 3988 433 (10.86%) 1.32 (1.13–1.54) <  0.001* 0.02
 Q2 2325 232 (9.98%) 1.12 (0.89–1.41)   4350 488 (11.22%) 1.35 (1.16–1.57)   
 Q3 1712 183 (10.69%) 1.24 (0.98–1.57)   3247 240 (7.39%) 1.04 (0.88–1.23)   
 Q4 2988 283 (9.47%) 1.15 (0.92–1.42)   3810 318 (8.35%) 1.13 (0.97–1.32)   
 Q5 (Richest) 1282 102 (7.96%) Reference   3828 276 (7.21%) Reference   
Place of birtha
 Home 2646 310 (11.72%) 1.20 (1.06–1.35) 0.004  
 Facility   17,100 1492 (8.73%) Reference   
Trimester of first ANC visit
 1st Trimester 1133 112 (9.89%) 0.86 (0.71–1.04) <  0.001* 1536 144 (9.38%) 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 0.63* 0.001
 2nd Trimester 6604 737 (11.16%) Reference   12,486 1259 (10.08%) Reference   
 3rd Trimester 802 139 (17.33%) 1.55 (1.32–1.83)   2031 196 (9.65%) 0.95 (0.83–1.10)   
  1. *p value for trend
  2. aParticipants in Dar es Salaam primarily enrolled from facilities