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Table 2 Factor Associated with Cognitive Impairment Status According to IHDS Score

From: Cognitive screening in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals in Hong Kong – a single center study

  Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
  Non-impaired (IHDS > 10)
(n = 60)
Impaired
(IHDS ≤10)
(n = 38)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Adjusted Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
aFemale sex, n (%) 3 (5) 3 (8) 1.63 (0.31–8.52) 0.674   
Age, year 31 (25–40) 32 (26–45)   0.358   
bTertiary education, n (%) 34 (57) 15 (40) 0.50 (0.22–1.14) 0.097 0.47 (0.20–1.17) 0.088
bCurrent smoker, n (%) 19 (32) 12 (32) 1.00 (0.44–2.25) 1.000   
bCurrent or ex-drinker, n (%) 14 (23) 8 (21) 0.88 (0.33–2.34) 0.792   
bHistory of substance use, n (%) 23 (38) 18 (47) 1.45 (0.64–3.30) 0.377   
bPrior psychiatric illness, n (%) 5 (8) 9 (24) 3.41 (1.05–11.13) 0.034 2.99 (0.84–10.66) 0.091
Blood HIV-1 RNA, log10 copies/ml 5.01 (4.61–5.39) 5.11 (4.81–5.75)   0.139   
CD4+ T-cells nadir (cells/μL) 298 (160–400) 241 (69–320)   0.078   NS
bCD4+ T-cells nadir < 200 cells/μL, n (%) 18 (30) 13 (34) 1.21 (0.51–2.89) 0.662   
aHepatitis C virus co-infection, n (%) 5 (8) 2 (5) 0.61 (0.11–3.32) 0.703   
b,c Syphilis co-infection, n (%) 22 (37) 18 (47) 1.56 (0.68–3.55) 0.294   
dPHQ-9 score 5 (2–8) 8 (4–12)   0.127   
b,dModerate depression (PHQ-9 > 9), n (%) 10 (17) 13 (34) 2.67 (0.99–7.17) 0.048 2.52 (0.90–7.06) 0.079
  1. Median (IQR) is presented unless specified otherwise
  2. aFisher’s Exact test
  3. bPearson Chi-square test
  4. cHistory of infection (enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-Treponemal pallidum assay (TPA) positivity)
  5. dn = 96
  6. Abbreviations: IHDS International HIV Dementia Scale, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnare-9, NS Not significant