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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with HBV infection

From: Seroprevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus infection among the hill tribe youths, northern Thailand

Factors n % OR 95%CI p-value ORAdj 95%CI p-value
Sex
 Male 312 37.3 1      
 Female 524 62.7 0.70 0.47–1.06 0.707    
Age (years)
 15–17 492 58.9 1    1   
 18–20 248 29.7 2.14 1.38–3.34 0.001a 2.13 1.35-3.29 0.001a
 21–24 96 11.4 2.39 1.33–4.30 0.004a 2.39 1.05-3.90 0.005a
Tribe
 Akha 251 30.0 3.05 1.05–8.87 0.040a 3.12 1.07-9.12 0.037a
 Lahu 110 13.2 4.30 1.41–13.10 0.010a 3.71 1.21-11.41 0.022a
 Hmong 132 15.8 3.65 1.20–11.02 0.022a 3.84 1.26-11.69 0.018a
 Yao 136 16.3 2.09 0.66–6.60 0.207. 2.46 0.77–7.87 0.127
 Karen 130 15.5 2.02 0.63–6.45 0.232 1.86 0.58–5.98 0.293
 Lisu 77 9.2 1    1   
Marital status
 Single 791 94.6 1      
 Other 45 5.4 2.26 1.11–4.60 0.025a    
Number of family members (persons)
 1–3 92 11.0 1      
 4–6 529 63.3 1.40 0.67–2.92 0.361    
 7–10 181 21.7 1.47 0.65–3.31 0.343    
  ≥ 11 34 4.1 1.97 0.64–6.04 0.233    
Religion
 Buddhism 491 58.7 1      
 Christianity 339 40.6 0.81 0.53–1.24 0.345    
 Islam 6 0.7 1.22 0.14–10.62 0.855    
Education
 Illiterate 21 2.5 1      
 Primary school 31 3.7 2.77 0.51–14.90 0.235    
 High school 655 78.4 1.36 0.31–5.94 0.651    
 Vocational school 129 15.4 1.64 0.35–7.62 0.527    
Occupation
 Unemployed 62 7.4 1      
 Student 685 81.9 0.83 0.39–1.75 0.632    
 Farmer 22 2.6 2.20 0.68–7.14 0.186    
 Labor 67 8.1 1.03 0.39–2.73 0.948    
Income
 No 745 89.1 1      
 Yes 91 10.9 1.03 0.52–1.90 0.993    
Smoker
 No 726 86.8 1      
 Yes 110 13.2 1.34 0.77–2.33 0.287    
Alcohol use
 No 656 78.5 1      
 Yes 180 21.5 1.36 0.86–2.16 0.187    
Methamphetamine use
 No 817 97.7 1      
 Yes 19 2.3 1.24 0.35–4.34 0.732    
Heroin use         
 No 823 98.4 1      
 Yes 13 1.6 1.20 0.26–5.50 0.811    
Crystal methamphetamine use
 No 825 98.7 1      
 Yes 11 1.3 0.65 0.08–5.18 0.690    
Tattooed
 No 725 86.7 1      
 Yes 111 13.3 1.13 0.63–2.00 0.674    
Ear piercing
 No 302 36.1 1      
 Yes 534 63.9 0.94 0.62–1.43 0.788    
History of blood transfusion
 No 803 96.1 1      
 Yes 33 3.9 0.65 0.19–2.16 0.484    
History of medical surgery
 No 733 87.7 1      
 Yes 103 12.3 1.04 0.57–1.90 0.889    
Injection from illegal practitioners
 No 803 96.1 1      
 Yes 33 3.9 0.65 0.19–2.16 0.484    
Acupuncture
 No 821 98.2 1      
 Yes 15 1.8 1.01 0.22–4.56 0.984    
Used a shared toothbrush
 No 656 78.5 1      
 Yes 180 21.5 1.02 0.62–1.65 0.937    
History of hepatitis B vaccination
 Yes 71 8.5 1      
 No 298 35.7 1.58 0.64–3.90 0.319    
 Not sure 261 31.2 1.96 0.79–4.83 0.143    
 Unknown 206 24.6 1.56 0.61–3.97 0.346    
Family history of hepatitis
 No 481 57.5 1      
 Yes 24 2.9 0.58 0.13–2.53 0.471    
 Not sure 120 14.4 1.05 0.59–1.87 0.852    
 Unknown 211 25.2 0.89 0.55–1.46 0.670    
Work experience outside the village
 No 693 82.9 1      
 Yes 143 17.1 1.92 1.20–3.07 0.006a 1.77 1.18-2.98 0.004a
Work experience abroad
 No 826 98.8 1      
 Yes 10 1.2 2.88 0.73–11.30 0.130    
Sexual experience
 Yes 243 29.1 1.10 0.71–1.71 0.648    
 No 593 70.9 1      
Used a condom during first sexual intercourse
 Yes 120 49.4 1      
 No 109 44.9 1.49 0.70–3.17 0.293    
 Does not remember 14 5.7 1.26 0.25–6.23 0.775    
Number of sexual partners (person)
 None 593 84.7 1    1   
 1 67 9.6 0.43 0.15–1.22 0.113 0.57 0.28–1.19 0.099
  ≥ 2 40 5.7 2.97 1.90–4.30 0.033a 2.66 1.96-3.87 0.047a
  1. a Significant at α = 0.05