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Table 4 Reported deaths and reported causes of death

From: Estimating the burden of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka; a systematic review

Published year Study design Deaths Reported causes of death Citation
1959 Case series 1 Haemorrhagic manifestation of liver and kidney [12]
1964 Case series 2 Multi organ failure and coma (lungs, meningitis, neurological manifestations) [32]
1967 Cross sectional 2 Leptospiraemic meningitis, bleeding manifestations [57]
1974 Cross sectional 8 Sepsis with liver, renal manifestations [21]
1976 Case report 9 Acute renal failure [35]
1977 Case series 7 Cardiac and pulmonary manifestation (hypotension with or without tachycardia, pulmonary oedema, haemorrhages and exudations) [61]
2008 Cross Sectional 15 Acute lung injury, myocarditis [36]
2011 Cross Sectional 3 Fulminant myocarditis [9, 38]a
2011 Cross Sectional 33 Respiratory failure and renal failure [20]
2011 Case series and review 13 Multi organ failure [39]
2012 Case series 21 Moderate to severe pulmonary haemorrhage in association with hepato-renal, myocardial and cerebral lesions [41]
2013 Case control 1 Jaundice, oliguria with acute organ dysfunction [42]
2014 Abstract 1 Meningoencephalitis [45]
2015 Case report 1 Multi organ dysfunction and refractory shock, cardiac involvement (global hypokinesia, acute heart failure) [60]
2015 Case report 3 Post-partum haemorrhage, HELLP syndrome [23]
2015 Case report 1 Multi organ dysfunction syndrome [47]
2015 Case report 1 Marked pleural effusion, cardiac, liver manifestations, renal manifestations [22]
2015 Cross sectional 20 Hypotension, cardiac failure, AKI, ARDS, [19]
2016 Cross sectional 7 Multi organ failure [39, 58]b
2016 Case series 1 Cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal complication, refractory hypotension, acute pancreatitis, multi organ failure [52]
  1. aReferences [9 and 28] used the same data set
  2. bReferences [48 and 65] used the same data set