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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics and outcomes stratified by use of any macrolide or fluoroquinolone during admission

From: Cardiac events after macrolides or fluoroquinolones in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia: post-hoc analysis of a cluster-randomized trial

  All patients Use of any macrolide during admission Use of any fluoroquinoloneduring admission No macrolide or fluoroquinolone during admission P value
n 2107 650 954 587  
Age 69 (58;79) 69 (57;78) 69 (58;79) 71 (60.5;79) 0.609
Male sex 1217 (57.8%) 388 (59.7%) 556 (58.3%) 332 (56.6%) 0.949
Nursing home residence1 100 (4.8%) 27 (4.2%) 48 (5.1%) 31 (5.4%) 0.684
Radiologically proven CAP 1604 (76.1%) 516 (79.4%) 739 (77.5%) 421 (71.7%) 0.684
Smoking current/ever 1599 (77.9%) 491 (77.1%) 729 (78.2%) 449 (79.2%) 0.998
Co-morbidities
 History of cardiac disease 733 (34.8%) 193 (29.7%) 342 (35.8%) 227 (38.7%) 0.122
 History of ischemic heart disease 415 (19.7%) 102 (15.7%) 190 (19.9%) 138 (23.5%) 0.044
 History of atrial fibrillation 299 (14.2%) 88 (13.5%) 141 (14.8%) 86 (14.7%) 0.935
 History of heart failure 198 (9.4%) 58 (8.9%) 91 (9.5%) 62 (10.6%) 0.835
 History of vascular disease* 458 (21.7%) 130 (20.0%) 219 (23.0%) 133 (22.7%) 0.698
 History of hypertension 643 (30.5%) 211 (32.5%) 285 (29.9%) 178 (30.3%) 0.874
 History of COPD 785 (37.3%) 231 (35.5%) 352 (36.9%) 232 (39.5%) 0.805
 History of diabetes 339 (16.1%) 83 (12.8%) 175 (18.3%) 97 (16.5%) 0.088
Medication use2
Antibiotic use before admission3 702 (34.1%) 215 (33.9%) 345 (36.7%) 178 (31.3%) 0.410
 Beta-lactam 376 (18.3%) 112 (17.7%) 192 (20.4%) 87 (15.3%) 0.168
 Macrolide 111 (5.4%) 42 (6.6%) 52 (5.5%) 29 (5.1%) 0.674
 Fluoroquinolone 52 (2.5%) 15 (2.4%) 28 (3.0%) 13 (2.3%) 0.805
 Other antibiotic 238 (11.6%) 65 (10.3%) 114 (12.1%) 71 (12.5%) 0.687
Use of antiplatelet agents 575 (27.4%) 186 (28.8%) 252 (26.5%) 170 (29.1%) 0.818
Use of anticoagulants 345 (16.4%) 85 (13.2%) 165 (17.4%) 104 (17.8%) 0.188
Use of antihypertensives 1057 (50.4%) 299 (46.3%) 485 (51.1%) 314 (53.7%) 0.486
Use of statins 629 (30.0%) 185 (28.6%) 285 (30.0%) 186 (31.8%) 0.843
Severity scores
 PSI score 83.7 ± 28.4 82.0 ± 27.9 84.6 ± 28.7 85.2 ± 28.4 0.007
 CURB65 score§ 1 (1;2) 1 (0;2) 1 (1;2) 1 (1;2) 0.042
Outcomes
 n/w cardiac event 146 (6.9%) 57 (8.8%) 53 (5.6%) 42 (7.2%) 0.144
 n/w arrhythmia 53 (2.5%) 19 (2.9%) 21 (2.2%) 14 (2.4%) 0.845
 n/w heart failure 101 (4.8%) 46 (7.1%) 34 (3.6%) 27 (4.6%) 0.024
 n/w myocardial ischemia 14 (0.7%) 2 (0.3%) 7 (0.7%) 6 (1.0%) 0.486
 Transfer to other hospital 12 (0.6%) 1 (0.2%) 7 (0.7%) 5 (0.9%) 0.320
 In-hospital mortality 66 (3.1%) 27 (4.2%) 35 (3.7%) 13 (2.2%) 0.262
  1. Values are medians (interquartile range) unless otherwise noted. Plus-minus values are means ± SD
  2. COPD denotes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. *includes cerebrovascular, peripheral artery, and thrombo-embolic disease
  4. ¶ The PSI score uses 20 clinical measures to predict risk of death within 30 days, with results ranging from 0.1% (in patients with a score of 0–50) to 27.0% (in patients with a score > 131)
  5. § The CURB-65 score is calculated by assigning 1 point each for confusion, uremia (blood urea nitrogen ≥ 20 mg per deciliter), high respiratory rate (≥30 breaths per minute), low systolic blood pressure (< 90 mmHg) or diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg), and an age of 65 years or older, with a higher score indicating a higher risk of death within 30 days
  6. 1Between 1 and 2.2% missing values for each group
  7. 2Between 0.3–0.6% missing values for each group
  8. 3Self-reported use of antibiotics before admission