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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and risk factor analysis

From: Human papillomavirus infection & anal cytological abnormalities in HIV-positive men in eastern India

Baseline characteristics Risk factor analysis for abnormal and normal anal cytology in HIV positive men (n = 95) Risk factor analysis for HPV positive and negative in HIV positive men (n = 119)
Frequency Frequency Uni-variate Multi-variate Frequency Frequency Uni-variate
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Positive
(n = 60)
Negative
(n = 35)
OR P-value OR P-value Positive
(n = 33)
Negative
(n = 86)
OR P-value
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Age (years) < 35 year 27 (45.0) 18 (51.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.6) 0.54    15 (45.5) 41 (47.7) 0.9 (0.4–2.0) 0.82
33 (55.0) 17 (48.6) 1 18 (54.5) 45 (52.3) 1
Education Illiterate 12 (20.0) 5 (14.3) 1.5 (0.4–4.6) 0.48    1 (3.0) 16 (18.6) 0.1 (0.0–1.0) 0.05
48 (80.0) 30 (85.7) 1 32 (97.0) 70 (81.4) 1
Employment Unemployed 30 (50.0) 14 (40.0) 1.5 (0.6–3.4) 0.34    13 (39.4) 36 (41.9) 0.9 (0.3–2.0) 0.80
30 (50.0) 21 (60.0) 1 20 (60.6) 50 (58.1) 1
Urban/rural Rural 45 (75.0) 26 (74.3) 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 0.93    26 (78.8) 61 (71.0) 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.38
15 (25.0) 9 (25.7) 1 7 (21.2) 25 (29.0) 1
Marital status Married, Widowed, Divorced 6 (10.0) 1 (2.9) 0.2 (0.0–2.2) 0.22    6 (18.2) 4 (4.7) 0.2 (0.0–0.8) 0.22
Never married 54 (90.0) 34 (97.1) 1     27 (81.8) 82 (95.3) 1  
History of active tuberculosis Present 24 (40.0) 8 (22.9) 2.4 (1.1–6.1) 0.04    9 (27.3) 35 (40.7) 0.5 (0.2–1.3) 0.17
36 (60.0) 27 (77.1) 1 24 (72.7) 51 (59.3) 1
History of Alcohol intake Yes 46 (76.7) 27 (77.1) 0.9 (0.3–2.6) 0.95    24 (72.7) 70 (81.4) 0.6 (0.2–1.5) 0.30
14 (23.3) 8 (22.9) 1 9 (27.3) 16 (18.6) 1
History of Smoking Yes 48 (80.0) 28 (80.0) 1.0 (0.3–2.8) 0.99    26 (78.8) 72 (83.7) 0.7 (0.2–1.9) 0.52
12 (20.0) 7 (20.0) 1 7 (21.2) 14 (16.3) 1
History of Anal intercourse with other male. Present 31 (51.7) 5 (14.3) 6.4 (2.1–18.7) 0.00* 6.1 (2.0–18.7) 0.00* 15 (45.5) 29 (33.7) 1.6 (0.7–3.7) 0.23
29 (48.3) 30 (85.7) 1
No. of Sexual partners >one 50 (83.3) 27 (77.1) 1.5 (0.5–4.4) 0.39    26 (78.8) 70 (81.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.2) 0.74
10 (16.7) 8 (22.9) 1 7 (21.2) 16 (18.6) 1
History of hemorrhoid Present 27 (45.0) 11 (31.4) 1.7 (0.7–4.2) 0.19    15 (45.5) 35 (40.7) 1.2 (0.5–2.7) 0.63
33 (55.0) 24 (68.6) 1 18 (54.5) 51 (59.3)
Anal symptoms (bleeding, discharge, pain, irritation) Present 26 (43.3) 11 (31.4) 1.6 (0.6–4.0) 0.25    15 (45.5) 35 (40.7) 1.2 (0.5–2.8) 0.55
34 (56.7) 24 (68.6) 1 18 (54.5) 51 (59.3) 1
WHO HIV clinical staging III + IV 30 (50.0) 9 (25.7) 2.8 (1.1–7.1) 0.02* 2.7 (1.1–7.5) 0.04* 14 (42.4) 37 (43.0) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.95
I + II 30 (50.0) 26 (74.3) 1     19 (57.6) 49 (57.0) 1  
CD4 count (ul)
(at the time of study)
< 350 50 (83.3) 22 (62.9) 2.9 (1.1–7.7) 0.02* 1.6 (0.5–4.7) 0.37 26 (78.8) 61 (71.0) 1.5 (0.5–3.9) 0.38
10 (16.7) 13 (37.1) 1 7 (21.2) 25 (29.0) 1
Weight (kg) < 40 7 (11.7) 6 (17.1) 0.6 (0.1–2.0) 0.45    4 (12.1) 10 (11.6) 1.0 (0.3–3.6) 0.94
53 (88.3) 29 (82.9) 1 29 (87.9) 76 (88.4) 1
Hemoglobin (g/dl) < 10 mg/dl 14 (23.3) 7 (20.0) 1.5 (0.5–4.3) 0.70    7 (21.2) 19 (22.0) 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 0.91
46 (76.7) 28 (80.0) 1 26 (78.8) 67 (78.0) 1
Presence of anal wart on visual inspection Present 14 (23.3) 7 (20.0) 1.5 (0.5–4.3) 0.70    7 (21.2) 21 (24.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.71
46 (76.7) 28 (80.0) 1 26 (78.8) 65 (75.6) 1
ART status Pre ART 32 (53.3) 19 (54.3) 0.9 (0.4–2.2) 0.92    23 (69.7) 48 (55.8) 1.8 (0.7–4.2) 0.17
On ART 28 (46.7) 16 (45.7) 1     10 (30.3) 38 (44.2) 1