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Table 2 Patients profile and associated factors with H1N1 infection based on matched case-control study (n = 314)

From: Evaluation of Influenza A H1N1 infection and antiviral utilization in a tertiary care hospital

  Influenza status   
Variable Infected Uninfected OR (95% CI) P value
(n = 157) (n = 157)   
Characteristics of patients     
 Male 85 (54.1) 83 (52.9) 1.05 (0.68–1.64) 0.821
 Age (>  60 years old) 37 (23.6) 58 (36.9)
 Cardiovascular disease 54 (34.4) 49 (31.2) 1.16 (0.72–1.85) 0.548
 Lung disease 31 (19.7) 42 (26.8) 0.67 (0.39–1.14) 0.143
 Diabetes mellitus 28 (17.8) 28 (17.8) 1.00 (0.56–1.79) 1.000
 Pregnant or post-partum state 11 (7.0) 4 (2.5) 2.88 (0.96–10.58) 0.075
 Immunocompromised 16 (10.2) 6 (3.8) 2.86 (1.14–8.15) 0.033
 Kidney disease 11 (7.0) 6 (3.8) 1.90 (0.70–5.63) 0.219
 Liver disease 1 (0.6) 3 (1.9) 0.329 (0.016–2.602) 0.338
 Neurological and neuro-developmental conditions 8 (5.1) 11 (7.0) 0.71 (0.27–1.81) 0.479
Hospitalization characteristics     
 Antibacterial therapy (intravenous or oral) 135 (86.0) 150 (95.5) 0.29 (0.11–0.66) 0.005
 ICU stay 62 (39.5) 74 (47.1) 0.73 (0.47–1.14) 0.172
 Mechanical ventilation 17 (10.8) 17 (10.8)
 Acute hemodialysis 8 (5.1) 0 (0.0)
 Vasoactive drugs 20 (12.7) 20 (12.7)
 Red blood cell or platelet transfusion 4 (2.5) 4 (2.5)
 Surgical procedure 15 (9.6) 15 (9.6)
 Thoracic procedure 6 (3.8) 0 (0.0)
 Albumin administration 23 (14.6) 24 (15.3)
 Length of stay (days) 5.00 [3.00; 8.00] 5.00 [3.00, 10.00] 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.680
 In–hospital death 8 (5.1) 14 (8.9) 0.55 (0.21–1.32) 0.190
  1. Category variables presented by absolute and relative frequencies. Numerical variables presented by median and inter-quartile range. Odds ratio (OR), confidence interval (95% CI) and p value obtained by simple logistic regression