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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, radiographic patterns, and laboratory data of treated and untreated groups

From: Outcome of untreated lung nodules with histological but no microbiological evidence of tuberculosis

  All patients (n = 107) Treated group (n = 40) Untreated group (n = 67) P value
Age (year) 56.3 ± 13.4 55.5 ± 12.4 56.8 ± 14.0 0.629
Male gender 64 (60) 26 (65) 38 (57) 0.398
Clinically asymptomatic 54 (51) 17 (43) 37 (55) 0.203
Previous history of tuberculosis 0.272
 No 95 (89) 38 (95) 57 (85)  
 Yes, treatment status unknown 1 (1) 0 1 (2)  
 Yes, treated 11 (10) 2 (5) 9 (13)  
Biopsy method 0.090
 Bronchoscopy 6 (6) 1 (3) 5 (8)  
 CT-guided 33 (31) 18 (45) 15 (22)  
 Echo-guided 3 (3) 1 (3) 2 (3)  
 Surgery 65 (61) 20 (50) 45 (67)  
Histology
 Granulomatous inflammation 106 (99) 40 (100) 66 (99) > 0.999
 Caseous necrosis 55 (51) 31 (78) 24 (36) < 0.001
 Lymph node sampling 32 (30) 3 (8) 29 (43) < 0.001
  Lymph node involvement 13 (12) 2 (5) 11 (16) 0.125
 Concomitant malignancy 18 (17) 2 (5) 16 (24) 0.012
Mycobacterial culture
 Tissue culture performed 68 (64) 21 (53) 47 (70) 0.066
 Sputum culture performed 81 (76) 33 (83) 48 (72) 0.205
 Either one 91 (85) 34 (85) 57 (85) 0.992
Comorbidity
 Malignancy 37 (35) 6 (15) 31 (46) 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 11 (10) 2 (5) 9 (13) 0.204
 ESRD under regular hemodialysis 2 (2) 1 (3) 1 (2) > 0.999
 Liver cirrhosis 2 (2) 2 (5) 0 0.138
 Organ transplant recipient 2 (2) 1 (3) 1 (2) > 0.999
 Autoimmune disease 2 (2) 0 2 (3) 0.527
 Hepatitis B virus infection 8 (8) 3 (8) 5 (8) > 0.999
 HIV infection 2 (2) 2 (5) 0 0.138
 Alcoholism 1 (1) 1 (3) 0 0.374
Main findings on chest CT
 Multiple nodules 78 (73) 33 (83) 45 (67) 0.084
 Solitary nodule 29 (27) 7 (18) 22 (33) 0.084
 Lesion size > 3 cm 9 (8) 2 (5) 7 (10) 0.400
 Associate findingsa
  Cavitation 3 (3) 0 3 (5) 0.291
  Ground glass opacity 20 (19) 9 (23) 11 (16) 0.435
  Calcification 22 (21) 9 (23) 13 (19) 0.701
  Fibrosis 36 (34) 15 (38) 21 (31) 0.514
  Bronchiectasis 13 (12) 5 (13) 8 (12) > 0.999
  Mediastinal LAP 72 (67) 25 (63) 47 (70) 0.415
Lab data
 Albumin (g/dL)b 4.2 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.6 0.005
 Hemoglobin (mg/dL) 13.0 ± 1.8 13.4 ± 1.6 12.8 ± 1.9 0.091
 Leukocyte count (K/uL) 7.2 ± 3.4 7.2 ± 4.1 7.2 ± 3.0 0.968
  Segment (%) 62.4 ± 10.2 61.5 ± 9.9 62.9 ± 10.4 0.479
  Band (%) 0.05 ± 0.30 0.10 ± 0.47 0.02 ± 0.12 0.293
  Lymphocyte (%) 29.0 ± 9.2 30.8 ± 8.8 27.9 ± 9.2 0.120
 CRP (mg/dL)c 3.1 ± 5.5 2.8 ± 3.2 3.2 ± 5.9 0.824
Death during follow up period 11 (10) 3 (8) 8 (12) 0.464
Mean follow-up duration (days) 1395.3 ± 217.0 1440.4 ± 85.5 1368.4 ± 263.4 0.097
Developing active tuberculosis 1 (1) 0 1 (2) > 0.999
  1. CRP C-reactive protein, CT Computed tomography, ESRD End-stage renal disease, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, LAP Lymphadenopathy, Data are expressed as number (%) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. aEach case might have more than one associate finding
  3. bData were missing for 2 cases of the treated group
  4. cData were available for 9 and 35 cases of the treated and untreated groups, respectively