Skip to main content

Table 2 Risk factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance

From: Virologic suppression in response to antiretroviral therapy despite extensive resistance within HIV-1 reverse transcriptase after the first virologic failure

Number of resistance mutations
Factors ≥ 3 n (%) <  3 n (%) PR PR 95% IC P-value
Age (years)      0, 806a
 18–30 7 (10, 1) 11 (11, 5) 0, 90 0, 49 – 1, 66  
 31–50 52 (75, 4) 68 (70, 8) 1, 00  
  > 50 10 (14, 5) 17 (17, 7) 0, 85 0, 50 – 1, 46  
Gender      0, 476a
 Male 53 (76, 8) 69 (71, 9) 1, 17 0, 75 – 1, 81  
 Female 16 (23, 2) 27 (28, 1) 1, 00  
Viral subtype      0, 771a
 B 50 (80, 6) 74 (78, 7) 1, 00  
 No-B 12 (19, 4) 20 (21, 3) 0, 93 0, 57 – 1, 53  
VL before ART (copies/ml)      0, 570b
  ≤ 10.000 4 (7, 5) 3 (4, 3) 1, 00  
  > 10.000 a 100.000 17 (32, 1) 27 (38, 6) 0, 68 0, 32 – 1, 42  
  > 100.000 32 (60, 4) 40 (57, 1) 0, 78 0, 39 – 1, 55  
CD4 before ART      0, 041a
  < 200 40 (66, 7) 39 (49, 4) 1, 52 1, 00 – 2, 31  
  ≥ 200 20 (33, 3) 40 (50, 6) 1,00  
VL in virologic failure (copies/ml)      0, 042a
  ≤ 10.000 15 (24, 6) 38 (71, 7) 1, 00  
  > 10.000 a 100.000 34 (55, 7) 33 (36, 3) 1, 79 1,10 – 2, 92  
  > 100.000 12 (19, 7) 20 (22, 0) 1,33 0,71 – 2, 46  
CD4 in virologic failure      0, 011a
  < 200 38 (59, 4) 33 (35, 9) 2, 04 1,18 – 3, 55  
 200–350 15 (23, 4) 28 (30, 4) 1, 33 0, 69 – 2, 56  
  > 350 11 (17, 2) 31 (33, 7) 1, 00  
ART regímen at NRTI baseline      0, 189a
 TDF 12 (17, 4) 25 (26, 0) 1, 00  
 No-TDF 57 (82, 6) 71 (74, 0) 1, 37 0, 83 – 2, 27  
Time to virologic failure (months)      0, 221a
  < 12 13 (19, 4) 28 (30, 4) 1, 00  
 12–24 25 (37, 3) 34 (37, 0) 1,3 4 0, 78 – 2, 29  
  > 24 29 (43, 3) 30 (32, 6) 1, 55 0, 92 – 2, 60  
Time on ART (months)      0, 003a
  ≤ 36 13 (18, 8) 39 (40, 6) 1, 00  
  > 36 56 (81, 2) 57 (59, 4) 1, 98 1, 19 – 3, 29  
  1. ART antiretroviral therapy, PR prevalence ratio, CI confidence interval, VL viral load, cell T CD4 CD4 T cell count, TDF tenofovir, NRTIs nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  2. aChi-square test
  3. bFisher’s exact test