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Table 5 Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with maternal adverse effects

From: Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women infected with HIV in Brazil from 2000 to 2015: a cohort study

Risk Factor Anemia Relative Risk Logistic Regression* Hepatic alterations Relative Risk Logistic Regression* Dyslipidemia Relative risk Fasting glycemia alterations Relative risk Logistic Regression*
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
n % n % RR CI 95% RR CI 95% n % n % RR CI 95% RR CI 95% n % n % RR CI 95% n % n % RR CI 95% RR CI 95%
Co-infection during pregnancy
 No 35 9.2 63 23.8 1 1                  
 Yes 378 99.7 263 99.2 1.65(1.17–2.33) 1.52(1.04–2.21)                  
 No information 1   2                     
Baseline CD4 (cells/mm3)
  < 200 66 19.0 19 6.1 1   52 14.2 32 10.4 1   82 17.7 21 21.4 1 15 12.2 59 11.5 1  
  > = 200 330 94.8 286 92.6 0.69(0.53–0.90)   315 85.8 276 89.6 0.86(0.64–1.16)   381 82.3 77 78.6 1.01(0.75–1.35) 108 87.8 453 88.5 0.95(0.55–1.63)  
 No information 18   23     15   9     7   5    4   24    
Peripartum CD4 (cells/mm3)
  < 200 59 16.6 13 4.1 1 1 43 11.7 29 9.4 1   65 14.0 13 13.1 1 12 9.8 48 9.4 1  
  > = 200 337 94.9 291 92.4 0.66(0.50–0.86) 0.67(0.51–0.90) 323 88.3 281 90.6 0.9(0.65–1.23)   399 86.0 86 86.9 0.98(0.71–1.34) 111 90.2 464 90.6 0.97(0.53–1.75)  
 No information 18   24     16   7     6   4    4   24    
CDC classification
 1 97 30.6 117 55.5 1   107 28.8 96 30.5 1   141 30.2 28 27.5 1 39 31.0 154 29.4 1  
 2 211 66.6 158 74.9 1.26(0.99–1.60)   191 51.3 160 50.8 1.03(0.82–1.31)   242 51.8 58 56.9 0.97(0.78–1.19) 63 50.0 274 52.3 0.93(0.62–1.38)  
 3 95 30.0 41 19.4 1.54(1.16–2.05)   74 19.9 59 18.7 1.06(0.79–1.42)   84 18.0 16 15.7 1.01(0.77–1.32) 24 19.0 96 18.3 0.99(0.60–1.65)  
 No information 11   12     10   2     3   1    1   12    
Peripartum viral load
 Undetectable (< 50 copies/ml) 215 108.0 205 166.7 1         309 66.3 54 56.3 1 81 66.4 314 61.4 1  
 Detectable (> = 50 copies/ml) 178 89.4 102 82.9 1.24(1.02–1.52)         157 33.7 42 43.8 0.93(0.77–1.12) 41 33.6 197 38.6 0.84(0.58–1.22)  
 No information 21   21           4   7    5   25    
Start of ART use
 Before pregnancy 58 16.3 80 32.3 1 1 58 15.4 77 24.3 1   97 20.7 21 20.4 1 37 29.6 95 18.0 1 1
 During pregnancy 350 98.3 240 96.8 1.41(1.07–1.86) 1.35(1.02–1.80) 319 84.6 240 75.7 1.33(1–1.76)   371 79.3 82 79.6 1(0.80–1.25) 88 70.4 434 82.0 0.6(0.41–0.88) 0.67 (0.44–1.01)
 No information 6   8     5       2   0    2   7    
NRTI
 AZT 373 909.8 291 786.5 1                   
 TDF 21 51.2 20 54.1 0.91(0.59–1.42)                   
 No information 20   17                     
ART during pregnancy
 NRTI + NRTI + NVP 72 21.1 49 17.6 1   92 26.0 17 5.6 2.04(1.58–2.63) 2.04(1.58–2.63) 52 11.5 19 19.8 1 10 8.3 87 17.5 1 1
 NRTI + NRTI + NFV 77 22.5 50 17.9 1.02(0.74–1.41)   77 21.8 47 15.5 1.5(1.15–1.97) 1.5(1.15–1.97) 86 19.0 18 18.8 1.13(0.80–1.59) 15 12.4 99 19.9 1.28(0.57–2.84) 1.31(0.59–2.92)
 NRTI + NRTI + LPV/r 228 66.7 183 65.6 0.93(0.72–1.22)   165 46.6 234 77.2 1 1 295 65.3 57 59.4 1.14(0.85–1.54) 91 75.2 292 58.8 2.31(1.20–4.43) 2.08(1.07–4.04)
 NRTI + NRTI + ATV/r 11 3.2 14 5.0 0.74(0.39–1.40)   20 5.6 5 1.7 1.94(1.22–3.08) 1.94(1.22–3.08) 19 4.2 2 2.1 1.24(0.73–2.09) 5 4.1 19 3.8 2.02(0.69–5.91) 1.58(0.52–4.76)
 No information 26   32     28   14     18   7    6   39    
Hepatitis C
 No        345 90.6 299 94.3 1             
 Yes        36 9.4 18 5.7 1.25(0.88–1.75)             
 No information        1   0               
  1. * Cox Logistic Regression
  2. ART antiretroviral therapy, NRTI nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, AZT zidovudine, TDF tenofovir, NVP nevirapine, NFV nelfinavir, LPV lopinavir, ATV atazanavir, r ritonavir, CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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