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Table 1 Documented exacerbations with Gram-negative organisms reported to be Burkholderia pseudomallei, Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Burkholderia cepacia (December 2013 – February 2017)

From: Relapse of chronic melioidosis in a paediatric cystic fibrosis patient: first case report from Malaysia

Organism Source / Date Antibiotic susceptibility test Other data
Resistant Intermediate Sensitive
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (December 2013) • Amoxicilin-clavulanate   • Ceftazidime
• Doxycycline
• Imipenem
• Co-timoxazole
*Pus cell: > 25/lpf
*Epithelial cell: 3/lpf
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (August 2014)    • Amoxicilin-clavulanate
• Ceftazidime
• Doxycycline
• Imipenem
• Co-timoxazole
*Pus cell: > 25/lpf
*Epithelial cell: 5/lpf
Pseudomonas Sputum (August 2014) • Gentamicin   • Ceftazidime
• Piperacillin-tazobactam
*Pus cell: > 25/lpf
*Epithelial cell: 15/lpf
Burkholderia cepacia Bronchoalveolar lavage (August 2015) • Amoxicilin-clavulanate
• Amikacin
• Azithromycin
• Ciprofloxacin
• Gentamicin
• Imipenem
• Piperacillin-tazobactam
  • Co-trimoxazole
• Meropenem
• Ceftazidime
*No virus detected
*AFB weakly positive
*No Mycobacterium
Burkholderia cepacia Sputum (November 2015) • Imipenem
• Co-trimoxazole
  • Meropenem
• Ceftazidime
*Pus cell: 0/lpf
*Epithelial cell: 1/lpf
*AFB negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sputum (January 2016) • Azithromycin   • Amikacin
• Ceftazidime
• Ciprofloxacin
• Gentamicin
• Meropenem
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (March 2016) • Co-trimoxazole    *Pus cell: 15/lpf
*Epithelial cell: 0/lpf
*AFB positive
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (April 2016) • Co-trimoxazole    *AFB positive
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (May 2016)   • Doxycycline • Ceftazidime
• Imipenem Amoxicilin-clavulanate
*AFB positive
*Acute duodenitis
*No malignancy
*Neutrophilic infiltration
*OGDS - Pangastritis
*Rapid urease test negative
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (May 2016) • Co-trimoxazole   • Amoxicillin-clavulanate  
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (May 2016)    • Sensitive to all antibiotics  
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (June 2016)    • Amoxicillin-clavulanate
• Doxycycline
*AFB positive
Burkholderia cepacia Sputum (December 2016) • Ciprofloxacin
• Imipenem
• Co-trimoxazole
  • Ceftazidime
• Meropenem
 
Burkholderia pseudomallei Bronchoalveolar lavage (February 2017)     *Candida parapsilosis (104–105)
*AFB negative
Burkholderia pseudomallei Sputum (February 2017) • Doxyccyline
• Co-trimoxazole
  • Amoxi-clavunate
• Ceftazidime
• Imipenem