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Table 3 Main features of reported cases of Helcococcus ovis infections

From: Helcococcus ovis in a patient with an artificial eye: a case report and literature review

Author Infected animal Helcococcus ovis Diagnosis Isolation source Treatment Outcome Other Bacteria Methods of identification
Collins,1999a [2] sheep1; sheep2 CCUG 37441(s840–96-2)1;
CCUG 390412
N.A.1;subclinical mastitis2 lung, liver and spleen.1; milk of sheep2 N.A. 1: death; 2:N.A. Arcanobacterium pyogenes1; Staphylococcus spp2. -API rapid ‘ID32 strep and API ZYM systems (bioMerieux) -PFGE
-16 s rRNA gene sequencing
Post,2003 [18] bovine one single base change vs CCUG 37441 valvular endocarditis atrioventricular heart valve, lung, liver Various antimicrobial agents (details N.A.) death Escherichia coli -16S rRNA gene sequencing
Rothschild, 2004 [16]b horse one single base change (99.93%) vs CCUG 37441 pulmonary abscess abscess fluid1; transtracheal wash2 penicillin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin(whole 8 months);
trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (later 2 months)
1: recover but recurring pleuropneumonia;
2: recovering well.
none1; Pseudomonas spp2 -API 20 Strep kit (Biomerieux)-16S rDNA gene sequencing
Kutzer, 2008 [17] Bovines(55)c at least 99.7% vs CCUG 37441 valvular endocarditis hearts N.A. 1 death; other N.A. 16 none;
1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis;
1 Streptococcus dysgalactiae.
-16S rRNA gene sequencing -API rapid ID 32 Strep and API ZYM kits (bioMe’rieux, Nu¨rtingen, Germany)
-Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
Zhang, 2009 [19] sheep 100% match vs CCUG 37441 pleuritis and bronchopneumonia lung tissue N.A. death Nocardia spp.; Bacillus spp; Staphylococcus aureus -16S rDNA gene sequencing
Bilk, 2011 [13] bovine(29)d at least 99.4% vs CCUG 37441 18 valvular endocarditis;
7 metritis and/or bortions;
3 bronchopneumonia;
1 ulcerative glossitis
N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. -16S rRNA gene sequencing -API rapid ID 32 Strep and API ZYM kits (bioMe’rieux, Nu¨rtingen, Germany)
-Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
García,2012 [20] goat H41-Yamagata-080523 (one single base change vs CCUG 37441) purulent bronchopneumoniaand pulmonary abscesses lung tissues tetracycline death none -16S rRNA gene sequencing
Schwaiger,2012 [11] bovine N.A. mastitis milk N.A. N.A. A. pyogenes, Peptoniphilus/Peptostreptococcus -VITEK system (bioMérieux Deutschland GmbH, Nürtingen, Germany).
-PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism
Locatelli,2013 [12] bovine 1105 (99%,single base change CCUG 37441) puerperal metritis N.A. N.A. N.A. Escherichia coli -API Systems (bioMérieux, Marcy l..Etoile, France).
-16S rRNA gene sequencing
AHVLAe, 2014 [21] bovine N.A. abortion stomach contents N.A. fetus death none -16S rRNA gene sequencing
  1. Note: NA means Not Available, not mentioned in original article
  2. aCollins’s study contained two sheeps; 1 means the first sheep, while 2 means the other one. bRothschild’s study mentioned one horse, but two isolates of Helcococcus ovis were recovered from this horse. 1 means the first time that H.ovis was isolated from abscess fluid, while 2 means H.ovis was isolated from transtracheal wash. c55 cases of bovine were collected in Kutzer’s study. And 18 strains of Helcococcus ovis were isolated. d29 means the number of the bovine in Bilk’s study, and 29 strains of Helcococcus ovis were isolated. eAnimal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency’s (AHVLA’s) disease surveillance report