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Table 4 Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin by infection pair in 210 participants with single target infections

From: C-reactive protein and procalcitonin to discriminate between tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected inpatients meeting WHO criteria for seriously ill: a prospective cohort study

Infection paira Cut-off (μg/L) Sensitivity% (95% CI) Specificity% (95% CI) PPV% (95% CI) NPV% (95% CI) LR+ LR- Diagnostic odds ratio (95% CI)
TB vs. CAP PCT ≥ 0.1 96.2 (91.4–98.8) 4.9 (1.0–13.7) 68.8 (61.6–75.4) 37.5 (8.5–75.5) 1.01 (0.95–1.08) 0.76 (0.19–3.10) 1.32 (0.34–5.21)
PCT ≥ 0.25 84.2 (76.9–90.0) 18.0 (9.4–30.0) 69.1 (61.4–76.1) 34.4 (18.6–53.2) 1.03 (0.89–1.18) 0.88 (0.45–1.70) 1.17 (0.53–2.59)
PCT ≥ 0.5 65.4 (56.7–73.4) 29.5 (18.5–42.6) 66.9 (58.1–74.9) 28.1 (17.6–40.8) 0.93 (0.76–1.14) 1.17 (0.75–1.84) 0.79 (0.41–1.52)
PCT ≥ 2 27.1 (19.7–35.5) 50.8 (37.7–63.9) 54.5 (41.8–66.9) 24.2 (17.1–32.6) 0.55 (0.38–0.80) 1.44 (1.10–1.88) 0.38 (0.20–0.72)
PCT > 10b 6.0 (2.6–11.5) 86.9 (75.8–94.2) 50.0 (24.7–5.3) 29.8 (23.2–37.1) 0.46 (0.18–1.16) 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 0.42 (0.16–1.15)
CAP vs. PJP PCT ≥ 0.1 95.1 (86.3–99.0) 18.8 (4.0–45.6) 81.7 (70.7–89.9) 50.0 (11.8–88.2) 1.17 (0.92–1.49) 0.26 (0.06–1.180 4.46 (0.92–21.84)
PCT ≥ 0.25 82.0 (70.0–90.6) 50.0 (24.7–75.3) 86.2 (74.6–93.9) 42.1 (20.3–66.5) 1.64 (0.99–2.71) 0.36 (0.17–0.75) 4.55 (1.44–14.43)
PCT ≥ 0.5 70.5 (57.4–81.5) 56.2 (29.9–80.2) 86.0 (73.3–94.2) 33.3 (16.5–54.0) 1.61 (0.90–2.87) 0.52 (0.29–0.94) 3.07 (1.02–9.26)
PCT ≥ 2 49.2 (36.1–62.3) 81.2 (54.4–96.0) 90.9 (75.7–98.1) 29.5 (16.8–45.2) 2.62 (0.92–7.51) 0.63 (0.44–0.88) 4.19 (1.15–15.03)
PJP vs. TB PCT ≥ 0.1 81.2 (54.4–96.0) 3.8 (1.2–8.6) 9.2 (5.0–15.3) 62.5 (24.5–91.5) 0.84 (0.67–1.07) 4.99 (1.31–18.94) 0.17 (0.04–0.71)
PCT ≥ 0.25 50.0 (24.7–75.3) 15.8 (10.0–23.1) 6.7 (2.9–12.7) 72.4 (52.8–87.3) 0.59 (0.36–0.97) 3.17 (1.69–5.93) 0.19 (0.07–0.54)
PCT ≥ 0.5 43.8 (19.8–70.1) 34.6 (26.6–43.3) 7.4 (3.0–14.7) 83.6 (71.2–92.2) 0.67 (0.38–1.18) 1.63 (1.00–2.66) 0.41 (0.15–1.14)
PCT ≥ 2 18.8 (4.0–45.6) 72.9 (64.5–80.3) 7.7 (1.6–20.9) 88.2 (80.6–93.6) 0.69 (0.24–1.99) 1.11 (0.86–1.44) 0.62 (0.18–2.17)
  1. Selected categories are based on assay guidelines developed for antibiotic use guidance in lower respiratory tract infections and sepsis (see text for details)
  2. Abbreviations: TB tuberculosis, CAP bacterial community-acquired pneumonia, PJP Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, LR Likelihood ratio, CI confidence interval. aCohort prevalences: TB, 63,3% (95%CI, 56.4–69.9%); CAP, 29.0% (95% CI, 23.0–35.7%); PJP, 7.6% (95% CI, 4.4–12.1%)
  3. bAnalaysis of PCT category of > 10 was only performed in TB vs. CAP infection pairs as no PJP participants had PCT exceeding 10 μg/L