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Table 3 Diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein by infection pair in 210 participants with single target infections

From: C-reactive protein and procalcitonin to discriminate between tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected inpatients meeting WHO criteria for seriously ill: a prospective cohort study

Infectiona Cut-off (mg/L) Sensitivity% (95% CI) Specificity% (95% CI) PPV% (95% CI) NPV% (95% CI) LR+ (95% CI) LR- (95% CI) Diagnostic odds ratio (95% CI)
TB vs. CAP CRP ≥64 90.2 (83.9–94.7) 11.5 (4.7–22.2) 69.0 (61.5–75.7) 35.0 (15.4–59.2) 1.02 (0.92–1.13) 0.85 (0.36–2.03) 1.20 (0.45–3.17)
CRP < 175 65.4 (56.7–73.4) 57.4 (44.1–70.0) 77.0 (68.1–84.4) 43.2 (32.2–54.7) 1.53 (1.12–2.11) 0.60 (0.44–0.83) 2.55 (1.37–4.72)
CAP vs. PJP CRP ≥ 63 90.2 (79.8–96.3) 18.8 (4.0–45.6) 80.9 (69.5–89.4) 33.3 (7.5–70.1) 1.11 (0.86–1.42) 0.52 (0.15–1.87) 2.12 (0.51–8.94)
CRP ≥ 147 63.9 (50.6–75.8) 87.5 (61.7–98.4) 95.1 (83.5–99.4) 38.9 (23.1–56.5) 5.11 (1.38–18.96) 0.41 (0.28–0.60) 12.41 (2.83–59.7)
PJP vs. TB CRP ≥33 93.8 (69.8–99.8) 2.3 (0.5–6.5) 10.3 (5.9–16.5) 75.0 (19.4–99.4) 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 2.77 (0.31–25.08) 0.35 (0.03–3.54)
CRP < 147 87.5 (61.7–98.4) 48.9 (40.1–57.7) 17.1 (9.7–27.0) 97.0 (89.6–99.6) 1.71 (1.33–2.19) 0.26 (0.07–0.95) 6.69 (1.46–30.60)
TB vs. CAP/PJP CRP ≥64 90.2 (83.9–94.7) 13.0 (6.4–22.6) 64.2 (56.8–71.0) 43.5 (23.2–65.5) 1.04 (0.94–1.15) 0.75 (0.35–1.63) 1.38 (0.58–3.25)
CRP ≥150 48.9 (40.1–57.7) 49.4 (37.8–61.0) 62.5 (52.5–71.8) 35.8 (26.8–45.7) 0.96 (0.73–1.28) 1.04 (0.78–1.37) 0.93 (0.53–1.63)
CAP vs. TB/PJP CRP ≥63 90.2 (79.8–96.3) 10.7 (6.3–16.9) 29.3 (22.9–36.3) 72.7 (49.8–89.3) 1.01 (0.91–1.12) 0.92 (0.38–2.23) 1.10 (0.42–2.87)
CRP ≥175 57.4 (44.1–70.0) 67.8 (59.6–75.2) 42.2 (31.4–53.5) 79.5 (71.5–86.2) 1.78 (1.30–2.45) 0.63 (0.46–0.86) 2.83 (1.54–5.21)
PJP vs. TB/CAP CRP ≥33 93.8 (69.8–99.8) 2.6 (0.8–5.9) 7.4 (4.2–11.8) 83.3 (35.9–99.6) 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 2.42 (0.30–19.52) 0.40 (0.04–3.62)
CRP < 147 87.5 (61.7–98.4) 53.6 (46.3–60.8) 13.5 (7.6–21.6) 98.1 (93.4–99.8) 1.89 (1.48–2.40) 0.23 (0.06–0.86) 8.09 (1.99–36.55)
  1. Two cut-offs are listed for each infection pair and one infection versus the other two: the first with minimum 90% sensitivity and the second selected using the Liu index (see text for details)
  2. Abbreviations: TB tuberculosis, CAP bacterial community-acquired pneumonia, PJP Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, LR Likelihood ratio, CI confidence interval. a Cohort prevalences: TB, 63.3% (95%CI, 56.4–69.9%); CAP, 29.0% (95% CI, 23.0–35.7%); PJP, 7.6% (95% CI, 4.4–12.1%)