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Table 2 The clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae BSIs according to blaKPC and HM phenotype

From: Bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae: prevalence of blaKPC, virulence factors and their impacts on clinical outcome

Characteristics blaKPC+/HM+ (n = 3) blaKPC+/HM (n = 92) blaKPC/HM+ (n = 66) blaKPC/HM (n = 124) P valuec P valued P valuee
Demographic data
 Age (years), mean (±SD) 68.0 ± 19.2 57.4 ± 15.3 57.1 ± 13.9 56.0 ± 17.4 0.93 0.94 0.88
 Male sex 2 (66.7) 68 (73.9) 44 (66.7) 85 (68.5) 0.32 0.39 0.79
Hospitalization unit
 Medical 0 55 (59.8) 56 (84.8) 105 (84.7) 0.001 < 0.001 0.98
 ICU 3 (100) 37 (40.2) 10 (15.2) 19 (15.3)    
Acquisition
 Nosocomial 2 (66.7) 89 (96.7) 29 (43.9) 86 (69.4) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001
 Community 1 (33.3) 3 (3.3) 37 (56.1) 38 (30.6)    
Underlying diseases
 Diabetes 0 22 (23.9) 11 (16.7) 30 (24.2) 0.27 0.96 0.23
 Hematologic malignancy 1 (33.3) 7 (7.6) 3 (4.5) 20 (16.1) 0.52 0.06 0.02
 Solid tumor 1 (33.3) 11 (12.0) 21 (31.8) 34 (27.4) 0.002 0.006 0.52
 Solid organ transplantation 0 21 (22.8) 4 (6.1) 8 (6.5) 0.004 < 0.001 0.92
 Heart disease 0 16 (17.4) 8 (12.1) 11 (8.9) 0.36 0.06 0.48
 Chronic lung disease 0 10 (10.9) 10 (15.2) 8 (6.5) 0.43 0.25 0.051
 Chronic kidney disease 1 (33.3) 31 (33.7) 8 (12.1) 22 (17.7) 0.002 0.007 0.31
Origin of BSI
 Respiratory tract 2 (66.7) 29 (31.5) 7 (10.6) 11 (8.9) 0.002 0.001 0.14
 Intraabdominal 1 (33.3) 19 (20.7) 9 (13.6) 7 (5.6) 0.26 0.001 0.06
 Soft tissue 0 4 (4.3) 4 (6.1) 2 (1.6) 0.72 0.41 0.19
 Intravenous catheter 0 6 (6.5) 0 4 (3.2) 0.04 0.42 0.30
 Urinary tract 0 4 (4.3) 1 (1.5) 9 (7.3) 0.40 0.37 0.18
 Biliary tract 0 5 (5.4) 16 (24.2) 31 (25) 0.001 < 0.001 0.91
 Liver abscess 0 3 (3.3) 15 (22.7) 10 (8.1) < 0.001 0.14 0.004
 Unknown 0 14 (15.2) 12 (18.2) 46 (37.1) 0.62 < 0.001 0.007
 Other(s)a 0 8 (8.7) 2 (3.0) 3 (2.4) 0.20 0.08 0.80
Clinical presentation
 APACHE II score, median (IQR) 25 (23.5–26.5) 23 (18–30) 14 (11–20) 15 (11–20) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.96
 Pitt bacteremia score, median (IQR) 4 (3–4.5) 7 (2–9) 1 (1–2) 1 (0–2) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.60
 Charlson comorbidity index, median (IQR) 2b 3 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–4) 0.56 0.40 0.81
 Septic shock 2 (66.7) 46 (50.0) 10 (15.2) 11 (8.9) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.19
 MODS 2 (66.7) 37 (40.2) 2 (3.0) 7 (5.6) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.65
 Immunosuppression state 1 (33.3) 45 (48.9) 8 (12.1) 40 (32.3) < 0.001 0.013 0.002
Therapy
 Appropriate empiric therapy 0 33 (35.9) 60 (90.9) 96 (77.4) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.02
 Appropriate definitive therapy 0 60 (65.2) 65 (98.5) 105 (84.7) < 0.001 0.001 0.003
14-day mortality 3 (100) 39 (42.4) 5 (7.6) 7 (5.6) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.84
  1. Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise specified; boldface, indicates statistical significance (p<0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: HM hypermucoviscous, BSIs bloodstream infections, CNS central nervous system, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, MODS multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
  3. aCentral nervous system infection, 9 cases; mediastinal infection, 1 cases; endocarditis, 3 cases
  4. bThe three cases had same Charlson comorbidity index
  5. cblaKPC+/HM vs blaKPC/HM+
  6. dblaKPC+/HM vs blaKPC/HM
  7. eblaKPC/HM+ vs blaKPC/HM