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Table 1 Demographics, HIV-related variables, and prevalence of AOIs of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at two medical centers between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015

From: AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses and early initiation of HIV care remain critical in the contemporary HAART era: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan

  Total (2010–2015) N = 1264 Period 1 (2010–2011) N = 395 Period 2 (2012–2013) N = 471 Period 3 (2014–2015) N = 398 P-value
Mean observation period, days (SD) 469 (255) 464 (247) 476 (256) 469 (261) 0.76
Male, n (%) 1242 (98.3) 388 (98.2) 460 (97.7) 394 (99.0) 0.33
Mean age at presentation, years (SD) 29.43 (9.50) 29.87 (10.18) 29.61 (9.81) 28.79 (8.33) 0.25
Diagnoses of HIV due to active HIV surveillance, n (%) 653 (49.7) 188 (45.6) 257 (52.7) 208 (50.3) 0.12
 VCT 500 (39.6) 132 (33.4) 197 (41.8) 171 (43.0) 0.01
 Military screening 124 (9.8) 47 (11.9) 50 (10.6) 27 (6.8) 0.04
 Screening at blood donation 28 (2.3) 9(2.1) 10 (2.3) 9 (2.2) 0.99
 Prenatal screening 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0.34
HIV transmission route, n (%)
 Homosexual 1031 (81.6) 317 (80.3) 376 (79.8) 338 (84.9) 0.11
 Heterosexual 141 (11.2) 56 (14.2) 51 (10.8) 34 (8.5) 0.04
 Bisexual 71 (5.6) 17 (4.3) 39 (8.3) 15 (3.8) 0.006
 IDU 14 (1.1) 3 (0.8) 4 (0.8) 7 (1.8) 0.32
 Unknown 7 (0.6) 2 (0.5) 1 (0.2) 4 (1.0) 0.29
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Chronic kidney disease 6 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 2 (0.4) 3 (0.8) 0.58
 DM 23 (1.8) 10 (2.5) 6 (1.3) 7 (1.8) 0.38
 Solid tumor 11 (0.9) 5 (1.3) 5 (1.1) 1 (0.3) 0.26
 Autoimmune disease 7 (0.6) 3 (0.8) 3 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 0.60
Mean CD4 count at presentation, cells/L (SD)a 275 (205) 271 (198) 264 (208) 293 (207) 0.09
Subgroup of CD4 cell count at presentation, n (%)a
 CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μL 491 (38.8) 154 (39.0) 189 (40.1) 148 (37.2) 0.67
 CD4 cell count 200–499 cells/μL 612 (48.4) 199 (50.4) 226 (48.0) 187 (47.0) 0.62
 CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/μL 161 (12.7) 42 (10.6) 56 (11.9) 63 (15.8) 0.07
Mean VL (log) (SD)a 4.79 (0.83) 4.78 (0.90) 4.80 (0.85) 4.78 (0.73) 0.96
HIV VL > 100,000 copies/mL, n (%)a 482 (38.1) 160 (40.5) 179 (38.0) 143 (35.9) 0.50
HBsAg seropositivity, n (%) 117 (9.3) 44 (11.1) 41 (8.7) 32 (8.0) 0.28
HCV seropositivity, n (%) 19 (4.8) 8 (1.7) 15 (3.8) 42 (3.3) 0.033
HIV stage at presentation by 2014 CDC definition [29], n (%)
 Stage 0 (Acute HIV) 100 (7.9) 38 (9.6) 34 (7.2) 28 (7.0) 0.32
 Stage 1 (CD4 count ≥500 cells/μL) 141 (11.2) 37 (9.4) 51 (10.8) 53 (13.3) 0.20
 Stage 2 (CD4 count 200–499 cells/μL) 546 (43.2) 168 (42.5) 205 (43.5) 173 (43.5) 0.95
 Stage 3 (AOIs or CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μL) 477 (37.7) 152 (38.5) 181 (38.4) 144 (36.2) 0.74
AOIs during observation period, n (%)
 Patients with AOI(s) at HIV presentation 233 (18.4) 77 (19.5) 87 (18.5) 69 (17.3) 0.74
 Patients who developed AOI(s) within study period 266 (21.0) 89 (22.5) 99 (21.0) 78 (19.6) 0.60
Mortality during observation period, n (%)
 AOI-related mortality 47 (3.7) 13 (3.3) 22 (4.7) 12 (3.0) 0.38
 All-cause mortality 56 (4.4) 17 (4.3) 27 (5.7) 12 (3.0) 0.15
  1. Abbreviations: AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AOI AIDS-defining opportunistic illness, DM diabetes mellitus, HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen, HCV hepatitis C virus, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, IDU intravenous drug users, PY person-year, SD standard deviation, VCT voluntary counseling and testing, VL viral load
  2. aAssayed within 6 months of enrollment