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Table 3 Association between maternal characteristics and potential risk factors for neonatal GBS colonization

From: Group B streptococcal colonization in mothers and infants in western China: prevalences and risk factors

Variables GBS colonization (n = 23) (n,%) GBS negative (n = 3416) (n,%) OR(95%CI) P value
Maternal age (years)
 18–39 23(100.0) 3264(95.6) 0.00(0.00–0.00) 0.996
 ≥40a 0(0.0) 152(4.4)   
Ethnic
 Han-Zhuanga 22(95.7) 3201(93.7)   
 Minority 1(4.3) 215(6.3) 0.68(0.09–5.05) 0.703
Education level
  ≤ 9 years of schoola 9(39.1) 1504(44.0)   
 10–12 years of school 10(43.5) 1173(34.3) 1.43(0.58–3.52) 0.443
  ≥ 13 years of school 4(17.4) 739(21.6) 0.91(0.28–2.95) 0.868
Current smoking
 Noa 23(100.0) 3381(99.0)   
 Yes 0(0.0) 35(1.0) 0.00(0.0–0.0) 0.998
Previous miscarriage
 Noa 23(100.0) 3114(91.2)   
 Yes 0(0.0) 302(8.8) 0.00(0.0–0.0) 0.998
Pregnancy-induced hypertension
 Noa 31(91.3) 3254(95.3)   
 Yes 2(8.7) 162(4.7) 1.91(0.45–8.23) 0.384
Gestational diabetes
 Noa 20(87.0) 2536(74.2)   
 Yes 3(13.0) 880(25.8) 0.43(0.13–1.46) 0.176
Parity
 1-2a 23(100.0) 3270(95.7)   
  ≥ 3 0(0.0) 146(4.3) 0.00(0.0–0.0) 0.996
Cesarean section
 Noa 18(78.3) 1844(54.0)   
 Yes 5(21.7) 1572(46.0) 0.33(0.12–0.88) 0.027
Episiotomy
 Noa 14(60.9) 2764(80.9)   
 Yes 9(39.1) 652(19.1) 2.73(1.17–6.32) 0.020
Membrane rupture
  < 11 hoursa 15(65.2) 3376(98.8)   
  ≥ 12 h 8(34.8) 40(1.2) 45.01(18.06–112.16) < 0.001
Length of labor
  < 4 hoursa 11(47.8) 3165(92.7)   
  ≥ 4 hours 12(52.2) 251(7.3) 13.75(6.01–31.48) < 0.001
Maternal previous antibiotic use
 Noa 23(100.0) 3316(97.1)   
 Yes 0(0.0) 100(2.9) 0.00(0.0–0.0) 0.997
Gestational age
 Full-term≥37weeksa 21(91.3) 3041(89.0)   
 Preterm< 37 weeks 2(8.7) 375(11.0) 0.77(0.18–3.31) 0.728
Maternal GBS colonization
 Noa 7(30.4) 3222(94.3)   
 Yes 16(69.6) 194(5.7) 37.96(15.44–93.36) < 0.001
  1. OR odds ratio, 95%CI 95% confidence interval
  2. aindicates the reference group in the calculation of OR