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Table 1 Microorganisms isolated in VAP depending on the employed method of taking the material for microbiological diagnostics, Polish ICUs 2013–2015

From: Epidemiology of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, microbiological diagnostics and the length of antimicrobial treatment in the Polish Intensive Care Units in the years 2013-2015

VAP PNEU-1a Other VAP casesb Total
Gram-positive cocci n(%) 35 (19.3)
Staphylococcus aureus 17 (21.3) 10 (9.9) 27 (16.1)
 Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.6)
Enterococcus spp. 1 (1.3) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.2)
Streptococcus pneumoniae 4 (5.0) 1 (1.0) 5 (3.0)
Enterobacteriaceae n(%) 59 (32.6)
Citrobacter spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.6)
Enterobacter spp. 1 (1.3) 2 (2.0) 3 (1.8)
Escherichia coli 5 (6.3) 7 (6.9) 12 (7.1)
Klebsiella pneumoniae 17 (21.3) 16 (15.8) 31 (18.5)
Proteus spp. 2 (2.5) 4 (4.0) 6 (3.6)
Seratia spp. 5 (6.3) 1 (1.0) 6 (3.6)
Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria n(%) 50 (27.6)
Acinetobacter baumannii 10 (12.5) 24 (23.8) 34 (20.2)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8 (10.0) 2 (2.0) 10 (6.0)
Stenotrothomonas maltophilia 1 (1.3) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.2)
Hemophilus spp. 0 (0.0) 4 (4.0) 4 (2.4)
Other n(%) 37 (20.4)
 Other bacteria 20 (25.0) 17 (16.8) 20 (22.0)
Total n(%) 80 (100.0) 101 (100.0) 181 (100.0)
  1. VAP Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
  2. aPNEU-1: pneumonia documented by invasive diagnostics, minimally contaminated lower respiratory tract sample with quantitative culture
  3. bOther VAP cases, documented by: PNEU-2 non-protected sample with quantitative culture; PNEU-3 alternative microbiological criteria; PNEU-4 sputum bacteriology or non-quantitative culture