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Table 4 Adjusted Odds Ratio for the relationship between ARI symptoms, household environmental characteristics, and maternal and child characteristics

From: Household environment and symptoms of childhood acute respiratory tract infections in Nigeria, 2003–2013: a decade of progress and stagnation

Variables 2003 2008 2013
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Household environment
 Unclean cooking fuel 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.98 (0.92–4.28) 1.44 (0.66–3.13)
 Cooking inside the house NA  
 Smoking by household members 1.09 (0.89–1.34) 1.11 (0.91–1.35) 2.27 (0.94–5.48) 2.72 (1.07–6.88)* 1.18 (0.89–1.57) 1.13 (0.85–1.51)
 Improved source of drinking water 0.67 (0.49–0.91)* 0.79 (0.58--1.09) 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 1.14 (0.96–1.35) 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 1.05 (0.88–1.25)
 Improved toilet 0.94 (0.74–1.19) 0.86 (0.64–1.17) 0.89 (0.77–1.04) 1.01 (0.85–1.19) 0.93 (0.77–1.12) 0.96 (0.80–1.16)
 Quality of housing material
  Poor NA NA 1.27 (1.05–1.54)* 1.00 (0.73–1.37) 1.48 (1.22–1.80)* 1.35 (0.98–1.86)
  Average NA NA 1.25 (0.99–1.56) 1.11 (0.87–1.42) 1.42 (1.13–1.78)* 1.19 (0.93–1.52)
  Good NA NA 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Over-crowded sleeping room 0.96 (0.81–1.15) 0.95 (0.79–1.13) 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 0.92 (0.81–1.06) 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 1.05 (0.89–1.24)
 Wealth quintile
  Poor   1.07 (0.76–1.50)   1.16 (0.79–1.70)   1.21 (0.84–1.73)
  Middle   1.19 (0.89–1.57)   1.12 (0.87–1.45)   1.48 (1.14–1.91)*
  Rich   1.00   1.00   1.00
 Residence
  Rural   1.00   1.00   1.00
  Urban   0.96 (0.72–1.29)   1.09 (0.87–1.39)   0.99 (0.79–1.26)
 Region
  North West   1.24 (0.77–2.01)   1.61 (1.04–2.48)*   3.89 (2.31–6.55)*
  North East   2.26 (1.43–3.58)*   4.89 (3.20–7.47)*   11.53 (7.05–18.86)*
  North Central   0.89 (0.54–1.51)   1.69 (1.11–2.59)*   1.69 (0.96–2.99)
  South East   1.32 (0.77–2.28)   3.15 (2.07–4.780*   5.88 (3.56–9.72)*
  South South   1.71 (1.05–2.77)*   3.21 (2.13–4.83)*   3.86 (2.33–6.39)*
  South West   1.00   1.00   1.00
 Season of interview
  Dry season   1.75 (1.39–2.21)*    1.54 (1.25–1.91)*
  Rainy season   1.00     1.00
Maternal characteristics
 Age of mother
  <  20   1.07 (0.58–1.98)   1.22 (0.80–1.86)   1.19 (0.79–1.81)
  20–29   0.99 (0.64–1.53)   1.29 (0.98–1.72)   1.11 (0.85–1.45)
  30–39   1.01 (0.71–1.45)   1.06 (0.83–1.36)   0.89 (0.72–1.12)
  > = 40   1.00   1.00   1.00
 Education
  None   1.29 (0.91–1.83)*   1.03 (0.82–1.28)   0.63 (0.52–0.78)*
  Primary   1.32 (0.97–1.80)   1.09 (0.90–1.34)   0.92 (0.76–1.12)
  Secondary/higher   1.00   1.00   1.00
  Occupation       
  Not working   0.68 (0.38–1.24)   0.93 (0.66–1.33)   0.85 (0.63–1.15)
  Professional/services   1.00   1.00   1.00
  Sales   0.82 (0.47–1.44)   1.04 (0.74–1.47)   0.80 (0.61–1.06)
  Agriculture/manual   0.77 (0.44–1.35)   1.32 (0.92–1.87)   0.99 (0.74–1.33)
Child characteristics
 Age (months)
  0–11   2.04 (1.58–2.63)*   1.43 (1.22–1.69)*   1.80 (1.52–2.12)*
  12–23   1.86 (1.43–2.41)*   1.88 (1.64–2.18)*   2.32 (1.97–2.72)*
  24–35   1.51 (1.15–1.98)*   1.32 (1.12–1.57)*   1.78 (1.47–2.14)*
  > = 36   1.00   1.00   1.00
 Sex
  Male   1.03 (0.87–1.22)   1.01 (0.89–1.13)   1.01 (0.90–1.14)
  Female   1.00   1.00   1.00
 Birth order
  1   1.00   1.00   1.00
  2–3   0.91 (0.69–1.19)   0.85 (0.73–1.00)   1.05 (0.87–1.26)
  4–5   0.97 (0.71–1.31)   0.82 (0.66–1.01)   1.11 (0.88–1.41)
  6+   0.81 (0.54–1.21)   1.01 (0.79–1.29)   1.43 (1.09–1.87)*
 Chronic malnutrition
  Yes   0.91 (0.74–1.12)   1.17 (1.02–1.32)*   1.07 (0.93–1.22)
  No   1.00   1.00   1.00
  1. *p <0.05 (statistically significant)