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Table 2 Risk factors for current and exposure to HBV infection among health care workers [4, 15, 16]

From: Seroepidemiology of HBV infection among health-care workers in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Variable Overall Current HBV infection Exposure to HBV infection
  (N = 467) HBsAg+ (%)a OR (IC 95) p-valueb Anti-HBc + (%)a OR (IC 95) p-valueb
Gender
 Male 89 7.9 1.38 (0.57–3.34) 0.412 28.1 1.92 (1.12–3.27) 0.016
 Female (Ref) 378 5.8 1   16.9 1  
Age group (Years)        
  < 20–29 (Ref) 300 7.3 1   15.7 1  
 30–39 127 1.6d 0.20 (0.47–0.87) 0.018 19.7e 1.32 (0.77–2.26) 0.311
  ≥ 40 40 12.5d 1.81 (0.64–5.07) 0.344c 42.5e 3.98 (1. 98–8.01) < 0.001
Marital status
 Married/Separated 277 6.9 1.31 (0.60–2.89) 0.500 21.7 1.52 (0.93–2.47) 0.093
 Single (Ref) 188 5.3 1   21.54 1  
Type of Work
 Administration (Ref) 89 7.9 1   13.5 1  
 Non-intervention 297 4.7 0.58 (0.23–1.48) 0.250 16.5f 1.27 (0.64–2.51) 0.494
 Intervention 81 9.9 1.28 (0.44–3.71) 0.644 34.6f 3.39 (1.58–7.26) < 0.001
Length of service (years)
  < 5 (Ref) 271 16.6 1   16.6 1  
 5–9 155 5.2 0.76 (0.33–1.80) 0.539 18.7g 1.16 (0.69–1.93) 0.581
  ≥ 10 41 7.3 1.11 (0.31–3.95) 0.872 36.6g 2.90 (1.42–5.90) 0.002
Needlestick injury
 Yes 160 4.4 0.53 (0.22–1.27) 0.149 24.4 1.71 (1.05–2.77) 0.029
 No (Ref) 277 7.9 1   15.9 1  
Other work-related injuries
 Yes 41 0.0 0.00 (−) 0.580c 26.8 1.55 (0.73–3.28) 0.252
 No (Ref) 282 29.2 1   19.1 1  
Hepatitis B vaccination history
 Unvaccinated/unknown 322 7.5 1.12 (0.33–3.91) 0.850 18.9 1.87 (0.71–4.94) 0.200
 Vaccinated (Ref) 45 6.7 1   11.1 1  
Blood recipient        
 Yes 11 0.0 0.00 (−) 1.000c 27.3 1.59 (0.42–6.11) 0.498c
 No (Ref) 445 6.5 1   19.1 1  
History of jaundice
 Yes 21 9.5 1.59 (0.35–7.17) 0.636 28.8 1.69 (0.64–4.49) 0.286
 No (Ref) 434 6.2 1   19.1 1  
Family history of liver disease
 Yes 30 6.7 1.06 (0.24–4.67) 1.000c 30.0 1.91 (0.84–4.35) 0.115
 No (Ref) 410 6.3 1   18.3 1  
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aThe percentage of samples in each variable
  3. bChi square test, except
  4. cby Fisher exact test; significant p values (< 0.05) are in bold
  5. dRisk of current HBV infection for age group ≥40 y.o. vs 30–39 y.o: OR 8.93 (95% CI, 1.66–48.01; p = 0.0093)
  6. eRisk of exposure to HBV infection for age group ≥40 y.o. vs 30–39 y.o: OR 3.02 (95% CI: 1.40–6.48; p = 0.004)
  7. fRisk of exposure to HBV infection for type of work Intervention vs non-intervention: OR 2.67 (95% CI: 1.54–4.64; p < 0.001)
  8. gRisk of exposure to HBV infection for length of service ≥10 years vs 5–9 years: OR = 2.51 (95% CI: 1.18–5.32; p = 0.015)