Skip to main content

Table 1 Studies reporting estimated geographical dispersal potential from Q fever infected farms

From: Airborne geographical dispersal of Q fever from livestock holdings to human communities: a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence

Reference Country Year of outbreak Urban density Farm type Farm size Infective distance from animal holdings
[40] Switzerland 1983 Rural Sheep flocks 850-900 sheep 1 - 2 km
[32]a Germany 2005 Urban Gestating ewes 30 ewes < 500 m; 60 m 14.7% +
[31]a Germany 2005 Urban Sheep farm 500 ewes; 35 lambing 11.8% attack rate within 50 m; 1.3% in the area 350 - 400 m
[29]a Netherlands 2006-10 Urban (contaminated land parcels) Goat manure N/A 0 - 2.5 km: 52% +; 2.5 - 5 km: 30% +
[44] France 2007 Rural Sheep and goats N/A 5 km
[61] Netherlands 2007-9 Urban Dairy goat farms 432-2653 goats 2 km
[24]a Netherlands 2007-10 Urban Dairy goat farms > 50 goats Most risk 0.5 - 1 km; acceptable risk of 50 cases per 100,000 for < 3 km
[30]a Netherlands 2007-10 Urban Dairy goat farms N/A Most risk < 4.1 km
[17] Netherlands 2007-11 Urban Multiple species regression N/A 5 km
[25] Netherlands 2008 Urban Dairy goat farm > 400 goats 2 km
[26]a Netherlands 2009 Rural / Urban Dairy goat farm 791 goats Most risk < 5 km
[62] Netherlands 2009 Urban Three dairy goat farms 791 - 1295 goats 0.3 - 1.5 km
[63] Netherlands 2009 Urban Goats 2251-20,960 goats 5 km
[43] Netherlands 2009 Urban Dairy goat farm 450 pregnant goats > 5 km
[64] Netherlands 2009 Urban Dairy goat farms and meat sheep farms N/A > 5 km
[27]a Netherlands 2009 Urban Dairy goat farms N/A 1 km: 71% +; 5 km: 18% +; 10 km: 3% +
[28]a Netherlands 2011 Urban (air samples 1-year post outbreak) Goat farms N/A 91 m: 56% +; 591 m: 25% +
[42] Hungary 2013 Rural Merino sheep flock 450 ewes > 10 km
  1. aindicates studies reporting specific effect sizes of geographic distance on the probability of infection
  2. N/A information not available