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Table 5 Risk factors for treatment failure in pediatric invasive candidiasis by univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Comparison of the incidence, clinical features and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in children and neonates

Risk factors Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Treatment success (total n = 261) Treatment failure (total n = 81) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Neonates vs. children
 Neonates 77 (29.5) 36 (44.4) 0.015 1.96 (0.91–4.23) 0.087
 Children 184 (70.5) 45 (55.6)   1 (reference)  
Initiation of antifungal agents within 24 h 100 (38.3) 41 (50.6) 0.054 1.58 (0.79–3.16) 0.540
Breakthrough invasive candidiasis 24 (9.2) 17 (21.0) 0.010 2.99 (1.04–8.67) 0.043
Septic shock at onset 34 (13.0) 55 (67.9) <  0.001 16.01 (7.64–33.56) <  0.001
Underlying renal failure with/without hemodialysis 20 (7.7) 19 (23.5) <  0.001 5.38 (1.99–14.57) 0.001
Delayed catheter removal > 3 days after illness onset 154 (59.0) 71 (87.7) <  0.001 6.78 (2.48–18.52) <  0.001
Treatment regimens    0.001   
 Fluconazole 109 (40.6) 22 (27.2)   1 (reference)  
 Amphotericin B 73 (28.0) 24 (29.6)   1.53 (0.70–3.33) 0.289
 Echinocandin 73 (28.0) 23 (28.4)   1.04 (0.47–2.31) 0.933
 Combination therapy 6 (2.3) 2 (2.5)   1.76 (0.25–12.3) 0.570
 No antifungal treatment 0 (0) 10 (12.3)   10.07 (1.6–64.7) <  0.001
Pathogens    0.729   
Candida albicans 121 (46.4) 34 (42.0)    
Candida parapsilosis 71 (27.2) 24 (58.0)    
Candida tropicalis 15 (5.7) 7 (8.6)    
Candida glabrata 17 (6.5) 4 (4.9)    
 Other Candida spp. 36 (13.8) 12 (14.8)    
Infectious source    0.358   
 Primary bloodstream infection 169 (64.8) 59 (72.8)    
 Catheter-related bloodstream infection 59 (22.6) 10 (12.3)    
 Intra-abdominal 22 (8.4) 9 (11.1)    
 Urological 4 (1.5) 1 (1.2)    
 Lung 3 (1.1) 1 (1.2)    
 Meningitis 4 (1.5) 1 (1.2)