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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients at the time of starting TB therapy

From: Differences in response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients being treated for tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe and Latin America

  All (N = 965) ART naïve (N = 518) Non ART naïve (N = 447)
Efavirenz (n = 647) non Efavirenz (n = 318) Efavirenz (n = 420) non Efavirenz (n = 98) Efavirenz (n = 227) non Efavirenz (n = 220)
Patient age at TB diagnosis (years) 37 (31–43) 37 (31–45) 37 (32–44) 35 (32–43) 36 (31–42) 38 (31–47)
Male*, n(%) 499 (77%) 206 (65%) 345 (82%) 73 (74%) 154 (68%) 133 (60%)
Ethnic group, n(%)*+&
 White 432 (68%) 182 (60%) 298 (73%) 61 (68%) 134 (60%) 121 (56%)
 Hispanic 118 (19%) 43 (14%) 63 (15%) 10 (11%) 55 (25%) 33 (15%)
 Black 47 (7%) 62 (20%) 26 (6%) 14 (16%) 21 (9%) 48 (22%)
 Other 35 (6%) 18 (6%) 22 (5%) 5 (6%) 13 (6%) 13 (6%)
HIV risk, n(%)*
 non IDU 382 (59%) 211 (66%) 243 (58%) 56 (57%) 139 (61%) 155 (70%)
 IDU 265 (41%) 107 (34%) 177 (42%) 42 (43%) 88 (39%) 65 (30%)
Region, n(%)*+&       
 Eastern Europe 363 (56%) 118 (37%) 262 (62%) 50 (51%) 101 (44%) 68 (31%)
 Western/Southern Europe 131 (20%) 144 (45%) 77 (18%) 39 (40%) 54 (24%) 105 (48%)
 Latin America 153 (24%) 56(18%) 81 (19%) 9 (9%) 72 (32%) 47 (21%)
CD4+ count (cells/mm3)*+ 96 (33–210) 118 (34–310) 82 (29–164) 60 (18–118) 140(48–297) 168(56–372)
Missing CD4 counts, n (%) 3 (< 1%) 1 (< 1%) 3 (1%) 1 (1%) 0(0%) 0(0%)
 HIV RNA (copies/mL),  n(%)* < 400 76 (12%) 63(20%) 8 (2%) 2 (2%) 68 (30%) 61 (28%)
 400–10 0000 39 (6%) 36 (11%) 18 (4%) 4 (4%) 21 (9%) 32 (14%)
  > 10 0000 319 (49%) 121 (38%) 254(60%) 61 (62%) 65 (29%) 60 (27%)
 Unknown 213 (33%) 98 (31%) 140 (33%) 31 (32%) 73 (32%) 67 (30%)
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 12 (10–14) 12 (10–14) 12 (10–14) 12 (10–13) 13 (10–14) 12 (10–14)
Disseminated TB+, n(%) 373 (58%) 189 (59%) 74 (76%) 237 (56%) 136 (60%) 115 (52%)
Resistance test performed 348 (54%) 169 (53%) 226 (54%) 49 (50%) 122 (54%) 120 (54%)
MDR-TB, n(%)° 68 (19%) 20 (12%) 47 (21%) 12 (24%) 21 (17%) 8 (7%)
Initial anti-TB drug, n(%)*+&
 Rifampicin 587 (91%) 208 (65%) 390 (93%) 70 (71%) 197 (87%) 138 (63%)
 Rifabutin 13 (2%) 69 (22%) 9 (2%) 12 (12%) 4 (2%) 57 (26%)
 No rifamicin 47 (7%) 41 (13%) 21 (5%) 16 (16%) 26 (11%) 25 (11%)
ART regimen, n (%)       
 Efavirenz 647 (100%) 0 (0%) 420 (100%) 0 (0%) 227 (100%) 0 (0%)
 Protease inhibitor 0 (0%) 181 (57%) 0 (0%) 62 (63%) 0 (0%) 119 (54%)
 Integrase inhibitor 0 (0%) 70 (22%) 0 (0%) 23 (23%) 0 (0%) 47 (21%)
 Other 0 (0%) 67 (21%) 0 (0%) 13 (13%) 0 (0%) 54 (25%)
Time between TB therapy and ART initiation (days)& 28 (17–49) 28 (15–34) 376 (47–1198) 1337 (199–3484)
  1. Note: Continuous variables are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. *p < 0.05 between patients receiving efavirenz and non-efavirenz -containing regimens of ART including the entire cohort. +p < 0.05 between efavirenz and non-efavirenz-containing ART regimens, including only naïve patients
  2. &p < 0.05 between efavirenz and non-efavirenz including only non-naïve patients. Time between TB diagnosis and ART initiation was estimated between non-naïve patients as TB diagnosis date less first ART date. °Percentage estimated relative to those with resistance test performed
  3. IDU Injecting Drug User, MDR-TB Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis