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Table 5 Viral and bacterial infection status and in-hospital mortality among pneumonia patients by comorbidity status

From: The impact of virus infections on pneumonia mortality is complex in adults: a prospective multicentre observational study

  Without comorbidities, n = 574 With chronic respiratory disease, n = 790 With other comorbiditiesa, n = 1253
  No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRb (95% CI) No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRb (95% CI) No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRb (95% CI)
HRV 2/53 (3.8) 0.73 (0.18–2.96) 4/83 (4.8) 0.78 (0.28–2.14) 8/98 (8.2) 0.97 (0.48–1.96)
Inf A/B 0/22 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 6/31 (19.4) 3.38 (1.54–7.42) 4/57 (7.0) 0.73 (0.26–2.02)
Paramyxovirus (RSV/hMPV/PIV1–4) 1/32 (3.1) 0.47 (0.07–3.26) 3/71 (4.2) 0.66 (0.20–2.13) 1/109 (0.9) 0.10 (0.01–0.70)
Other viruses (HAdV/HBoV/HCoV) 0/4 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 1/5 (20.0) 4.55 (0.58–35.5) 1/9 (11.1) 1.33 (0.21–8.66)
Multiple viruses 0/7 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 1/6 (16.7) 3.98 (0.68–23.24) 3/18 (16.7) 1.68 (0.56–5.03)
No virus 26/456 (5.7) Reference 44/594 (7.4) Reference 88/962 (9.2) Reference
   ARRc(95% CI)   ARRc(95% CI)   ARRc(95% CI)
Only viruses 1/64 (1.6) 0.24 (0.03–1.78) 9/108 (8.3) 1.28 (0.59–2.81) 9/187 (4.8) 0.51 (0.26–1.01)
Only bacterial pathogens 8/179 (4.5) 0.83 (0.36–1.93) 16/227 (7.1) 1.13 (0.61–2.09) 27/340 (7.9) 0.84 (0.54–1.31)
Viral-bacterial co-infection 2/54 (3.7) 0.58 (0.14–2.38) 6/88 (6.8) 1.29 (0.55–3.06) 8/104 (7.7) 0.77 (0.38–1.59)
No viral or bacterial pathogens 18/277 (6.5) Reference 28/367 (7.6) Reference 61/622 (9.8) Reference
   ARRb (95% CI)   ARRb (95% CI)   ARRb (95% CI)
Multiple viruses 0/7 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 1/6 (16.7) 3.22 (0.52–19.81) 3/18 (16.7) 2.98 (0.91–9.78)
Single virus 3/111 (2.7) Reference 14/190 (7.4) Reference 14/273 (5.1) Reference
  1. ARR adjusted risk ratio, CI confidence interval, HRV human rhinovirus, InfA influenza A virus, RSV respiratory syncytial virus, PIV1–4 human parainfluenza virus type 1–4, HMPV human metapneumovirus, InfB influenza B virus, HCoV human coronavirus (229E/OC43), HAdV human adenovirus, HBoV human bocavirus
  2. a Other comorbidities include diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, neuromuscular disease, cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, collagen disease, malignancy, renal disease, and liver disease
  3. bAdjusted for age, study site, duration of symptoms, month of diagnosis, antibiotic use and presence of bacteria
  4. cAdjusted for age, study site, duration of symptoms, month of diagnosis, and antibiotic use