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Table 4 Viral and bacterial infection status and in-hospital mortality among pneumonia patients by age group

From: The impact of virus infections on pneumonia mortality is complex in adults: a prospective multicentre observational study

  Total, n = 2617 15–64 y, n = 580 65–74 y, n = 447 75–84 y, n = 848 85 y+, n = 742
  No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRa (95% CI) No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRa (95% CI) No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRa (95% CI) No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRa (95% CI) No. death/no. cases (% mortality) ARRa (95% CI)
HRV 14/234 (6.0) 0.86 (0.51–1.45) 2/63 (3.2) 1.60 (0.38–6.65) 3/37 (8.1) 1.16 (0.38–3.59) 3/66 (4.6) 0.55 (0.17–1.74) 6/68 (8.8) 0.87 (0.40–1.93)
Inf A/B 10/110 (9.1) 1.13 (0.60–2.13) 1/25 (4.0) 1.74 (0.17–17.74) 1/15 (6.7) 1.03 (0.12–8.86) 3/31 (9.7) 0.93 (0.29–2.99) 5/39 (12.8) 1.44 (0.58–3.61)
Paramyxovirus (RSV/hMPV/PIV1–4) 5/212 (2.4) 0.29 (0.12–0.71) 0/35 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 1/40 (2.5) 0.41 (0.06–3.01) 3/70 (4.3) 0.44 (0.14–1.39) 1/67 (1.5) 0.15 (0.02–1.05)
Other viruses (HAdV/HBoV/HCoV) 2/18 (11.1) 1.62 (0.42–6.18) 1/6 (16.7) 4.30 (0.63–29.53) 0/3 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 1/7 (14.3) 1.66 (0.26–10.64) 0/2 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00)
Multiple viruses 4/31 (12.9) 1.69 (0.67–4.27) 0/8 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 1/7 (14.3) 2.63 (0.37–18.75) 0/6 (0.0) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 3/10 (30.0) 2.72 (0.88–8.46)
No virus 158/2012 (7.9) Reference 15/443 (3.4) Reference 25/345 (7.3) Reference 62/668 (9.3) Reference 56/556 (10.1) Reference
   ARRb(95% CI)   ARRb(95% CI)   ARRb(95% CI)   ARRb(95% CI)   ARRb(95% CI)
Only viruses 19/359 (5.3) 0.66 (0.41–1.07) 2/71 (2.8) 0.96 (0.18–5.02) 1/56 (1.8) 0.27 (0.03–2.20) 7/111 (6.3) 0.70 (0.32–1.56) 9/121 (7.4) 0.68 (0.34–1.39)
Only bacterial pathogens 51/746 (6.8) 0.90 (0.65–1.25) 5/199 (2.5) 0.82 (0.28–2.42) 10/148 (6.8) 1.02 (0.48–2.17) 21/219 (9.6) 1.05 (0.64–1.74) 15/180 (8.3) 0.76 (0.43–1.35)
Viral-bacterial co-infection 16/246 (6.5) 0.85 (0.51–1.41) 2/66 (3.0) 1.31 (0.25–6.80) 5/46 (10.9) 1.75 (0.67–4.60) 3/69 (4.4) 0.46 (0.14–1.49) 6/65 (9.2) 0.85 (0.37–1.94)
No viral or bacterial pathogens 107/1266 (8.5) Reference 10/244 (4.1) Reference 15/197 (7.6) Reference 41/449 (9.1) Reference 41/376 (10.9) Reference
  1. ARR adjusted risk ratio, CI confidence interval, HRV human rhinovirus, InfA influenza A virus, RSV respiratory syncytial virus, PIV1–4 human parainfluenza virus type 1–4, HMPV human metapneumovirus, InfB influenza B virus, HCoV human coronavirus (229E/OC43), HAdV human adenovirus, HBoV human bocavirus
  2. aAdjusted for age, study site, comorbidity status, duration of symptoms, month of diagnosis, antibiotic use, and presence of bacteria
  3. bAdjusted for age, study site, comorbidity status, duration of symptoms, month of diagnosis, and antibiotic use