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Table 1 Factors associated with HCV re-testing in HIV-positive people (n = 3799)

From: Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data

  Between 2007 and 2011 Between 2012 and 2015
  HCV re-tested Person years Rate per 100 person years (95% CI) Univariate IRR (95% CI) p Multivariate IRR (95% CI) p HCV re-tested Person years Rate per 100 person years (95% CI) Univariate IRR (95% CI) p Multivariate IRR (95% CI) p
Age
 Every additional 5 years 666 2001.5 33.3 (30.8–35.9) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.07    1323 2862.2 46.2 (43.8–48.8) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) <0.01 1.0 (0.9–1.0)* <0.01
Sex
 Male 606 1762.8 34.4 (31.7–37.2) 1.0     1195 2456.3 48.6 (46.0–51.5) 1.0    
 Female 60 238.8 25.1 (19.5–32.4) 0.7 (0.6–1.0) 0.02    128 405.9 31.5 (26.5–37.5) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) <0.01   
Country of birth
 Australia 449 1397.4 32.1 (29.3–35.2) 1.0   1.0   871 1903.0 45.8 (42.8–48.9) 1.0    
 Other 217 604.1 35.9 (31.4–41.0) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.18 1.3 (1.1–1.6) <0.01 452 959.2 47.1 (43.0–51.7) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.62   
Place of residence
 Major city 339 1092.4 31.0 (27.9–34.5) 1.0   1.0   944 1726.4 54.7 (51.3–58.3) 1.0   1.0  
 Regional/remote 316 878.1 36.0 (32.2–40.2) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.06 1.3 (1.1–1.5) <0.01 367 1085.6 33.8 (30.5–37.4) 0.6 (0.5–0.7) <0.01 0.7 (0.6–0.8) <0.01
 Unknown 11 31.0 35.5 (19.7–64.1)    12 50.2 23.9 (13.6–42.1)   
Sexual orientation
 MSM 528 1416.0 37.3 (34.2–40.6) 1.7 (1.3–2.1) 0.00 1.8 (1.4–2.3) <0.01 996 1941.6 51.3 (48.2–54.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) <0.01 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.03
 Heterosexual male 78 346.7 22.5 (18.0–28.1) 1.0   1.0   198 512.7 38.6 (33.6–44.4) 1.0   1.0  
 Unknown 60 238.8 25.1 (19.5–32.4)    129 407.9 31.6 (26.6–37.6)   
Ever performed sex work
 No 649 1942.7 33.4 (30.9–36.1) 1.0     1278 2783.7 45.9 (43.5–48.5) 1.0    
 Yes 17 58.8 28.9 (18.0–46.5) 0.9 (0.5–1.4) 0.56    45 78.5 57.3 (42.8–76.8) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 0.14   
Ever injected drugs
 No 507 1649.6 30.7 (28.2–33.5) 1.0   1.0   1126 2513.1 44.8 (42.3–47.5) 1.0   1.0  
 Yes 109 223.9 48.7 (40.3–58.7) 1.6 (1.3–1.9) <0.01 1.7 (1.4–2.1) <0.01 148 256.6 57.7 (49.1–67.8) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) <0.01 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.01
 Unknown 50 128.0 39.1 (29.6–51.5)    49 92.5 52.9 (40.0–70.1)   
Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander
 No 629 1915.1 32.8 (30.4–35.5) 1.0   1.0   1270 2748.6 46.2 (43.7–48.8) 1.0    
 Yes 37 86.4 42.8 (31.0–59.1) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 0.12 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 0.04 53 113.6 46.6 (35.6–61.1) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.95   
Current CD4 cell count (cells/mm3)
  ≥ 500 164 596.3 27.5 (23.6–32.1) 1.0     501 1107.2 45.2 (41.5–49.4) 1.0    
  < 500 158 567.2 27.9 (23.8–32.6) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.91    340 786.7 43.2 (38.9–48.1) 1.0 (0.8–1.1) 0.51   
 Unknown 344 838.1 41.0 (36.9–45.6)     482 968.3 49.8 (45.5–54.4)    
Current HIV RNA
 Undetectable 299 898.5 33.3 (29.7–37.3) 1.0     758 1585.1 47.8 (44.5–51.3) 1.0    
 Detectable 167 536.3 31.1 (26.8–36.2) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.49    243 465.2 52.2 (46.1–59.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.23   
 Unknown 200 566.7 35.3 (30.7–40.5)     322 811.9 39.7 (35.6–44.2)    
Current ART use
 Yes 366 1121.3 32.6 (29.5–36.2) 1.0     919 1851.9 49.6 (46.5–52.9) 1.0    
 No 100 313.5 31.9 (26.2–38.8) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.84    82 198.5 41.3 (33.3–51.3) 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 0.11   
 Unknown 200 566.7 35.3 (30.7–40.5)     322 811.9 39.7 (35.6–44.2)    
Current calendar year~
 2007 / 2012 74 236.7 31.3 (24.9–39.3) 1.0   1.0   279 760.9 36.7 (32.6–41.2) 1.0   1.0  
 2008 / 2013 167 424.3 39.4 (33.8–45.8) 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 0.10 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 0.07 361 819.4 44.1 (39.7–48.8) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.02 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.02
 2009 / 2014 155 487.2 31.8 (27.2–37.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.90 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.66 414 808.1 51.2 (46.5–56.4) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) <0.01 1.4 (1.2–1.6) <0.01
 2010 / 2015 158 487.3 32.4 (27.7–37.9) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 0.80 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.52 269 473.8 56.8 (50.4–64.0) 1.5 (1.3–1.8) <0.01 1.5 (1.3–1.8) <0.01
 2011 / - 112 366.0 30.6 (25.4–36.8) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.89 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.74   
  1. Missing categories were included in models but coefficients are not shown. *IRR (95%CI) to two decimal places was 0.96 (0.94–0.98); ~Calendar year for 2007–2011 model / calendar year for 2012–2015 model. Despite calendar year not reaching significance in the multivariate 2007–2011 model, it was retained to allow comparison with the unadjusted testing rates in Fig. 2; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CI, confidence interval; IRR, incidence rate ratio; MSM, men who have sex with men; ART, antiretroviral therapy