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Table 1 Comparison of demographical, clinical and microbiological characteristics between patients initially recruited by General Practitioners (GPs) with at least a nasopharyngeal swab (N = 574) and patients included in the study as presenting a nasopharyngeal swab and a stool specimen (N = 331)

From: Clinical and virological factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with acute respiratory infection: a two-year prospective study in general practice medicine

Characteristics Patients with at least a nasopharyngeal sample
N (%)
Patients with nasopharyngeal and stool sample
N (%)
P-value*
Number of samples 574 331  
Male 268 (46.7) 154 (46.5) P > 0.05
Mean age [Min-Max] 35.9 [1-91] 35.8 [1 - 91] P > 0.05
0-4 y 38 (6.6) 25 (7.5) P > 0.05
5-14 y 66 (11.5) 59 (17.8) P > 0.05
15-44 y 241 (42) 122 (36.8) P > 0.05
45-64 y 141 (24.6) 86 (26) P > 0.05
≥ 65 y 66 (11.5) 39 (11.8) P > 0.05
Vaccination against influenza 51 (8.9) 36 (10.9) P > 0.05
Travel (<15 days) 29 (5) 20 (6) P > 0.05
Risk factor 223 (38.8) 124 (37.5) P > 0.05
Chronic disease 189 (32.9) 106 (32) P > 0.05
Depression 51 (8.9) 26 (7.8) P > 0.05
Hospitalization 35 (6.1) 20 (6) P > 0.05
Digestive disorders <7 days 103 (17.9) 59 (17.8) P > 0.05
Symptoms
 High Fever (>39 °C) 275 (47.9) 156 (47.1) P > 0.05
 Asthenia 507 (88.3) 288 (87) P > 0.05
 Myalgia 431 (75.1) 243 (73.1) P > 0.05
 Headaches 424 (73.9) 244 (73.1) P > 0.05
 Otitis 62 (10.8) 28 (8.5) P > 0.05
 Dyspnea 127 (22.1) 73 (22) P > 0.05
 Cough 510 (88.8) 299 (90.3) P > 0.05
 Expectoration 196 (31.2) 103 (31.1) P > 0.05
 Rhinitis 426 (74.2) 251 (75.8) P > 0.05
 Pharyngitis 338 (58.9) 198 (59.8) P > 0.05
 Hyperemia 150 (26.1) 81 (24.5) P > 0.05
 Adenopathy 66 (11.5) 35 (10.6) P > 0.05
 Dehydration 6 (1) 4 (1.2) P > 0.05
 Gastrointestinal symptoms (SGI) 327 (57) 189 (57.1) P > 0.05
 Diarrhea 84 (14.6) 47 (14) P > 0.05
 Vomiting 66 (11.5) 28 (8.5) P > 0.05
 Nausea 195 (34) 105 (31.7) P > 0.05
 Abdominal pain 197 (34.3) 113 (34.1) P > 0.05
Food consumption
 Raw shellfish and molluscs 37 (6.4) 25 (7.5) P > 0.05
 Cooked shellfish and molluscs 51 (8.9) 31 (9.4) P > 0.05
 Tap water 351 (61.5) 198 (59.8) P > 0.05
Drug consumption before consultation
 Antibiotics 29 (5) 17 (5.1) P > 0.05
 Antiviral 16 (2.8) 8 (2.4) P > 0.05
 Anti-inflammatory 86 (14.9) 46 (13.9) P > 0.05
 Antipyretics 331 (57.7) 189 (57.1) P > 0.05
 Other drugs 104 (18.1) 64 (19.3) P > 0.05
Drug prescription after consultation
 Antibiotics 104 (18.1) 57 (17.2) P > 0.05
 Antiviral 48 (8.4) 24 (7.2) P > 0.05
 Antipyretics 473 (82.4) 271 (81.9) P > 0.05
 Other drugs 165 (28.7) 103 (31.1) P > 0.05
Results of virological analyses in nasopharyngeal samples
 Nasopharyngeal samples positive to at least one pathogen 320 (55.7) 204 (61.6) P > 0.05
 Influenza (A + B) 176 (30.7) 114 (34.4) P > 0.05
 Influenza A (including 4 A not subtyped) 69 (12) 42 (12.7) P > 0.05
 A(H1N1)pdm09 36 (6.3) 24 (7.2) P > 0.05
 A(H3N2) 29 (5) 14 (4.2) P > 0.05
 Influenza B 107 (18.6) 72 (21.7) P > 0.05
 Influenza B Victoria 89 (15.5) 57 (17.2) P > 0.05
 Influenza B Yamagata 18 (3.1) 15 (4.5) P > 0.05
 Human Coronaviruses NL63, 229E, OC43, HKU1 48 (8.4) 35 (10.6) P > 0.05
 Human Rhinovirus 49 (8.5) 25 (7.5) P > 0.05
 Respiratory Syncytial virus A/B 26 (4.5) 20 (6) P > 0.05
 Human Bocavirus 5 (0.9) 3 (0.9) P > 0.05
 Human Metapneumovirus A/B 16 (2.8) 9 (2.7) P > 0.05
 Human Parainfluenza viruses 1, 2,3,4 6 (1) 4 (1.2) P > 0.05
 Human Adenovirus 8 (1.4) 4 (1.21) P > 0.05
 Human Parechovirus 0 0  
 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 0 0  
 Enteroviruses 0 0  
 Co-infection 13 (2.3) 10 (3) P > 0.05
  1. *P-value resulted of Chi square or Fisher exact test