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Table 5 Risk of cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected individuals exposed to abacavir for various durations

From: Risk of cardiovascular events from current, recent, and cumulative exposure to abacavir among persons living with HIV who were receiving antiretroviral therapy in the United States: a cohort study

Duration of exposure (months) HR (95% CI; p value) Unadjusted Cox Model Adjusted Cox Model HRa (95% CI; p value) Marginal Structural Model HRb (95% CI; p value)
Never exposed Referent Referent Referent
1–6 1.66 (1.23, 2.25; p = 0.001) 1.24 (0.92, 1.67; p = 0.163) 1.25 (0.92, 1.70; p = 0.150)
7–12 1.69 (1.15, 2.47; p = 0.007) 1.27 (0.87, 1.86; p = 0.219) 1.41 (0.97, 2.06; p = 0.073)
13–18 2.28 (1.48, 3.54; p < 0.001) 1.71 (1.10, 2.65; p = 0.016) 1.78 (1.16, 2.72; p = 0.009)
19–24 2.09 (1.26, 3.47; p = 0.004) 1.62 (0.98, 2.69; p = 0.060) 1.90 (1.16, 3.11; p = 0.011)
>25 1.45 (0.97, 2.18; p = 0.071) 1.20 (0.80, 1.80; p = 0.386) 1.30 (0.86, 1.97; p = 0.208)
  1. aAdjusted for baseline covariates: gender, tobacco use (ever), substances or alcohol abuse (ever), symptomatic HIV disease, serologic evidence of hepatitis B & C infections, history of stroke, history of cancer, prior myocardial infarction, and time-dependent covariates: age, calendar year, body weight, receipt of anti-hyperglycemic agents, receipt of medications for heart disease, and diagnoses of: diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension
  2. bIn addition to adjusting for weights generated from the treatment model using all the time-fixed and time-dependent covariates in the adjusted Cox model, the marginal model is adjusted for time-fixed/baseline covariates: sex, ever tobacco use, ever alcohol or substance abuse, symptomatic HIV disease, serologic evidence of hepatitis B & C infections, history of stroke, history of cancer, prior myocardial infarction, and baseline values of time-dependent covariates: age, calendar year, receipt of anti-hyperglycemic agents, receipt of medications for heart disease, and diagnoses of: diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension