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Table 3 Health-related quality of life of influenza outpatients

From: The impact of influenza on the health related quality of life in China: an EQ-5D survey

  n VAS Health utility QALD loss a
  Mean (SD) Median
(IQR)
Multiple linear regression
(95% CI) b
Mean
(SD)
Median
(IQR)
Multiple linear regression
(95% CI) b
Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Multiple linear regression
(95% CI) b
Total 529 68.93
(19.08)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
  0.6142 (0.2006) 0.6430 (0.5630,0.7350)   1.62 (1.84) 1.09 (0.46,2.04)  
Age group (years)
 0–4 122 71.39
(20.06)
75.00
(60.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.6286 (0.1963) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) Reference 1.72 (1.84) 1.48 (0.65,2.15) Reference
 5–15 246 69.65
(18.40)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
−2.56
(−6.79, 1.80)
0.6216 (0.1921) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7290) −0.0119
(−0.0525, 0.0332)
1.47 (1.53) 1.09 (0.50,1.98) −0.13
(−0.52, 0.20)
 16–59 146 65.53
(19.71)
70.00
(50.00, 80.00)
−5.88
(−10.73, −0.94)f
0.5939 (0.2165) 0.6430 (0.4575,0.7290) −0.0329
(−0.0840, 0.0175)
1.77 (2.31) 0.92 (0.40,2.33) 0.13
(−0.33, 0.66)
 ≥ 60 15 70.33
(10.77)
70.00
(65.00, 72.50)
0.22
(−6.55, 7.65)
0.5733 (0.2109) 0.6430 (0.4130,0.7290) −0.0424
(−0.1525, 0.0760)
1.84 (1.47) 1.27 (0.92,3.00) 0.01
(−0.79, 0.84)
Gender       p = 0.0041    p = 0.0441  
 Female 248 67.05
(20.51)
70.00
(50.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.584 (0.2164) 0.6430 (0.4510,0.7290) Reference 1.79 (1.95) 1.30 (0.52,2.17) Reference
 Male 281 70.59
(17.58)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
3.26
(−0.01, 6.39)
0.6408 (0.1818) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) 0.0565
(0.0216, 0.0900)f
1.47 (1.73) 1.09 (0.39,1.98) −0.32
(−0.62, −0.02)f
Risk status c       p = 0.0097    p < 0.001  
 Low-risk 412 69.88
(18.87)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.6267 (0.1948) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) Reference 1.42 (1.63) 0.95 (0.39,1.98) Reference
 High-risk 117 65.58
(19.50)
70.00
(50.00, 80.00)
−4.36
(−8.20, −0.55)f
0.5698 (0.2147) 0.6430 (0.3650,0.7290) −0.0573
(−0.1029, −0.0158)f
2.33 (2.32) 1.74 (0.88,2.87) 0.87
(0.51, 1.39)f
Area
 Urban 438 68.28
(19.49)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.6075 (0.2041) 0.6430 (0.5432,0.7290) Reference 1.67 (1.89) 1.16 (0.50,2.07) Reference
 Rural 91 72.09
(16.68)
75.00
(60.00, 80.00)
2.71
(−1.84, 6.50)
0.646 (0.1802) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) 0.0339
(−0.0080, 0.0728)
1.40 (1.56) 0.92 (0.39,1.97) −0.26
(−0.63, 0.13)
Region          p = 0.0373  
 East China 271 68.79
(19.43)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.6162 (0.1905) 0.6430 (0.5440,0.7290) Reference 1.53 (1.80) 1.09 (0.43,1.99) Reference
 Central China 122 69.48
(19.56)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
0.08
(−4.43, 4.21)
0.6298 (0.217) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7470) 0.0064
(−0.0404, 0.0512)
1.50 (1.80) 1.09 (0.16,2.03) 0.01
(−0.32, 0.48)
 West China 136 68.74
(18.04)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
−1.26
(−4.87, 2.77)
0.596 (0.2051) 0.6430 (0.5372,0.7290) −0.0287
(−0.0705, 0.0082)
1.92 (1.94) 1.37 (0.65,2.52) 0.45
(0.11, 0.89)f
Hospital d
 Level 3 298 67.23
(19.67)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.6006 (0.2171) 0.6430 (0.4922,0.7335) Reference 1.82 (2.13) 1.30 (0.46,2.17) Reference
 Level 2 119 71.18
(17.39)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
3.61
(−0.53, 7.19)
0.6364 (0.1575) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) 0.0259
(−0.0160, 0.0625)
1.23 (1.10) 0.92 (0.48,1.6) −0.46
(−0.80, −0.15)f
 Level 1 and lower 112 71.06
(18.89)
72.50
(60.00, 85.00)
2.96
(−1.50, 7.42)
0.6266 (0.1944) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) 0.0188
(−0.0250, 0.0607)
1.51 (1.56) 1.11 (0.49,2.07) −0.25
(−0.63, 0.08)
Virus type
 Untyped e 307 67.59
(19.59)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
Reference 0.6072 (0.2052) 0.6430 (0.5440,0.7350) Reference 1.67 (1.92) 1.09 (0.50,2.04) Reference
 Influenza A 164 70.21
(17.98)
70.00
(60.00, 80.00)
3.22
(−0.60, 6.54)
0.6242 (0.1889) 0.6430 (0.5430,0.7350) 0.0217
(−0.0147, 0.0580)
1.56 (1.79) 1.11 (0.39,2.17) −0.11
(−0.45, 0.24)
 Influenza B 58 72.41
(18.95)
70.00
(60.00, 85.00)
4.31
(−1.54, 9.36)
0.6227 (0.21) 0.7290 (0.5690,0.7290) 0.0137
(−0.0489, 0.0639)
1.54 (1.54) 0.92 (0.52,1.95) −0.12
(−0.55, 0.32)
  1. a QALD: quality-adjusted life days
  2. b Compared to the reference, absolute increase or decrease of the VAS, health utility and/or QALD loss. And we obtained the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap percentile confidence interval using the R function “boot.ci”
  3. c Risk status: high risk patients refer to those with underlying medical conditions including: chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and chronic renal disease, etc. Other patients without these underlying diseases are low risk patients
  4. d Level 3 is the top level, followed by level 2 and level 1 in order
  5. e Untyped: Laboratory tests for influenza virus type identification were not conducted
  6. f p < 0.05: significant differences