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Table 5 Results of tests and performance of routine diagnostic methods compared to reference tests. N = 1564

From: Acute undifferentiated fever in India: a multicentre study of aetiology and diagnostic accuracy

Diagnostic method N Positive N (%) Negative N (%) Equivocal or discrepancya N (%) Missing data N
Leptospira
 ELISA 1502 201 (14) 1240 (83) 61 (4) 62
 MAT on ELISA positives 179 116 (65) 63 (35)   22
 MAT on ELISA negatives 52 32 (62) 20 (38)   1188
Scrub typhus
 ELISA 1504 313 (21) 1180 (78) 11 (1) 60
 IFA on ELISA positives 260 159 (61) 101 (39)   53
 IFA on ELISA negatives 107 12 (11) 95 (89)   1073
Dengue
 NS1/IgM/IgG Combo (RDT) 1465 124 (8) 1318 (90) 23 (2) 99
 MAC ELISA 1400 177 (13) 1064 (76) 159 (11) 164
 RDT and/or MAC ELISA 1501 244 (16) 1243 (83) 14 (1) 63
 MAC ELISA on RDT positives 118 57 (48) 48 (41) 13 (11) 6
 MAC ELISA on RDT negatives 1225 102 (8) 989 (81) 134 (11) 93
Chikungunya
 ELISA 1487 98 (7) 1389 (93)   77
Blood culture 1161 164 (14) 997 (86)   403
 Pathogenic 1161 124 (11)    
   Neisseria spp. 124 1 (1)    
   S. aureus 124 24 (19)    
   Enterococci spp. 124 2 (2)    
   E. faecalis 124 1 (1)    
   S. pneumoniae 124 7 (6)    
   S. pyogenes 124 1 (1)    
   Streptococci spp. 124 1 (1)    
   S. typhi/paratyphi 124 44 (35)    
   Klebsiella spp 124 1 (1)    
   E. coli 124 11 (9)    
   Enterobacter spp 124 1 (1)    
   Acinetobacter 124 4 (3)    
   Burkholderia cepacia 124 1 (1)    
   Pseudomonas spp 124 1 (1)    
   Proteus 124 2 (2)    
  Unidentifiedb 124 22 (18)    
 Contaminantsc 1161 40 (3)    
Malaria
 Genus specific PCR 1412 268 (19) 1144 (81)   152
 Species PCR or sequencing 251     17
   P. falciparum 251 116 (46)    
   P. vivax 251 96 (38)    
   P. malariae 251 9 (4)    
   P. falciparum + vivax 251 27 (11)    
   P. falciparum + malariae 251 2 (1)    
   P. vivax + malariae 251 1 (0.4)    
 Microscopy 1263 96 (8) 1167 (92)   301
 Microscopy and genus PCR 1168 66 (6) 918 (79) 184 (16) 396
 Microscopy, genus PCR and RDT 1163 41 (4) 906 (78) 216 (19) 401
  1. aDiscrepancy between tests performed at study sites and reference laboratory, or equivocal results
  2. bCocci (N = 5), gram negative (N = 4), gram positive (N = 7), unidentified (N = 6)
  3. c Bacillus (N = 14), coagulase negative staphylococci (N = 7), Corynebacterium (N = 4), diphteroids (N = 1), micrococci (N = 10), undefined contaminants (N = 4)