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Table 1 Characteristics of five inception cohorts of HAART initiators (2008–2012)

From: Five-year trends in treatment changes in an adult cohort of HIV/AIDS patients in Ghana: a retrospective cohort study

Variable 2008 (%)
N = 836
2009 (%)
N = 810
2010 (%)
N = 804
2011 (%)
N = 753
2012 (%)
N = 730
p-value
WHO stage       
 I 11 (1.3) 18 (2.2) 108 (13.5) 110 (14.6) 155 (21.2) <0.0001
 II 164 (19.6) 66 (8.2) 133 (16.6) 148 (19.7) 150 (20.6)  
 III 105 (12.7) 50 (7.4) 221 (27.5) 343 (45.5) 313 (42.9)  
 IV 71 (8.5) 52 (6.4) 123 (15.3) 143 (19.0) 102 (14.0)  
 Missing 485 (57.9) 614 (65.8) 218 (27.1) 9 (1.2) 10 (1.4)  
Age group       
  ≤ 25 years 37 (4.4) 37 (4.6) 35 (4.4) 45 (6.0) 45 (6.2) 0.0990
 26–35 253 (30.3) 247 (30.5) 218 (27.1) 205 (27.2) 189 (25.9)  
 36–45 265 (31.7) 258 (31.8) 255 (31.8) 246 (32.7) 227 (31.1)  
 46–55 154 (18.4) 130 (16.0) 148 (18.4) 131 (17.4) 145 (19.9)  
 56–65 37 (4.4) 29 (3.6) 48 (6.0) 30 (4.0) 48 (6.6)  
  > 65 90 (10.8) 109 (13.5) 99 (12.3) 96 (12.8) 76 (10.4)  
Gender       
 Male 290 (34.7) 301 (37.2) 289 (36.0) 252 (33.5) 241 (33.0) 0.3995
 Female 546 (65.3) 509 (62.8) 515 (64.0) 501 (66.5) 489 (70.0)  
Initial treatment       
 AZT/3TC/EFV 331 (39.6) 263 (32.5) 271 (33.7) 286 (38.0) 147 317 (42.4) <0.0001
 AZT/3TC/NVP 238 (28.5) 193 (23.8) 166 (20.7) (19.5) 154 (21.1)  
 d4T/3TC/EFV 154 (18.4) 208 (25.7) 239 (29.7) 117 (15.5) 0 (0)  
 d4T/3TC/NVP 101 (12.1) 137 (16.9) 103 (12.8) 58 (7.7) 0 (0)  
 TDF/3TC/EFV 3 (0.4) 2 (0.3) 7 (0.9) 100 (13.3) 202 (27.7)  
 TDF/3TC/NVP 0 1 (0.1) 3 (0.4) 26 (3.5) 41 (5.6)  
 OTHER 9 (1.1) 6 (0.7) 15 (1.9) 19 (2.5) 16 (2.2)  
Recorded death       
  32 (3.8) 65 (8.0) 52 (6.5) 44 (5.8) 44 (6.0)
Number of treatment changes ( N = 234) ( N = 240) ( N = 280) ( N = 171) ( N = 35)  
 AZT/3TC/EFV 41 (17.5) 19 (7.9) 21 (7.5) 20 (11.7) 16 (45.7) <0.0001
 AZT/3TC/NVP 26 (11.1) 23 (9.6) 13 (4.6) 15 (8.8) 13 (37.1)  
 d4T/3TC/EFV 98 (41.9) 118 (49.2) 158 (56.6) 87 (50.9) 0  
 d4T/3TC/NVP 66 (28.2) 80 (33.3) 84 (29.9) 40 (23.4) 0  
 TDF/3TC/EFV 1 (0.4) 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 2 (5.7)  
 TDF/3TC/NVP 0 0 0 1 (0.6) 2 (5.7)  
 OTHER 2 (0.9) 0 3 (1.1) 7 (4.1) 2 (5.7)  
Log-rank test for treatment type       
  <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.012  
  1. There was an increasing trend in treatment change with increasing disease severity. Although treatment change among WHO stage II patients was lower than that of WHO stage I patients, this was not significant (p-value = 0.189)
  2. There was no trend among the different age groups and sex regarding treatment changes