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Table 2 Risk factors for HIV co-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women in sentinel sites, Rwanda

From: Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda

  HIV infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women Bivariate mixed-effect logistic model Multiple mixed-effects logistic model
  n % Odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Overall 486 20 4.1   
Age group
 25–49 years 303 10 3.3 1 1
 15–24 years 182 10 5.5 1.82 (0.71 – 4.55) 6.91 (1.77 – 27.01)
Marital status
 In union 424 17 4.0 1  
 Not in union 62 3 3.8 1.19 (0.25 – 5.66) NA
Education level
 Illiterate/primary 425 17 4.0 1  
 Secondary/University 59 3 5.1 1.03 (0.27 – 3.91) NA
Occupation
 Salaried 15 0 0.0   
 Not Salaried 468 20 4.3 PFP NA
Residence
 Rural 257 5 1.9 1 1
 Urban 229 15 6.6 3.28 (1.02 – 10.53) 4.34 (1.15 – 16.43)
Pregnancies
  < = 2 pregnancies 252 8 3.2 1 1
  > 2 pregnancies 221 11 5.0 1.60 (0.61 – 4.19) 6.88 (1.71 – 27.77)
RPR results
 RPR negative 475 16 3.4 1 1
 RPR positive 11 4 36.4 17.28 (3.98 – 74.93) 24.89 (5.04 – 122.89)
  1. CI confidence interval, RPR rapid plasma reagin
  2. PFP predicts failure perfectly
  3. NA not applicable refers to factors with p-value ≥0.25 at the bivariate level which were not considered when developing the Multivariable model. The variables listed in this table are the variables that were included in the bivariate analyses