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Table 4 Risk factors for carriage of resistant bacteria among children aged 0-10 years with respiratory tract symptoms in Primary Health Care and growth of either Streptococcus pneumoniae and/or Haemophilus influenzae. (n = 178)

From: Children with respiratory tract infections in Swedish primary care; prevalence of antibiotic resistance in common respiratory tract pathogens and relation to antibiotic consumption

Variable Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted *OR (95% CI)
Male sex 2.41 (1.16-5.02) 2.95 (1.25-6.98)
Age (per year) 0.85 (0.70-1.04) 0.77 (0.58-1.02)
Hospital care last 6 m 1.40 (0.26-7.50)  
Abroad last 3 m 1.06 (0.47-2.40)  
Parents smoking 0.47 (0.10-2.14)  
Attending day care centre 1.54 (0.63-3.80)  
Respiratory tract disease (asthma/ allergy) 0.17 (0.02-1.28) 0.17 (0.02-1.38)
Pneumococcal vaccination (yes) 0.65 (0.16-2.69)  
Antibiotics previous 4 weeks 3.45 (1.17-10.19)  
  1. Missing data regarding the variables were <10% in the children with, as well as, in the children without resistant bacteria
  2. *Method: Backward Stepwise (Wald) Step 7