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Table 1 The results of subgroup analyses by methodological quality and pre-defined setting characteristics

From: Incidence, temporal trend and factors associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia in mainland China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups   Studies Sample size Estimate (%)a 95% CI (%) I 2 (%) p valueb
Overallc   93 71,816 23.8 20.6–27.2 98.9 -
Clinical department General ICU 11 5388 18.3 11.3–26.6 97.7 0.310
  Neonatal ward 4 136 26.1 9.4–47.6 85.5  
  Neonatal ICU 7 3938 15.7 3.2–35.0 99.4  
  Pediatric ICU 6 721 30.2 18.7–43.2 91.8  
  Respiratory ICU 5 607 27.4 23.3–31.7 15.2  
  Surgical ICU 1 85 29.4 20.3–39.5 -  
Diagnostic criteriad By Chinese Critical Care Medicine Society in 2013 26 3 174 38.4 31.4–45.8 0.0 <0.001
  By the Chinese Ministry of Health in 2001 25 29 46,894 20.0 15.1–25.3 99.1  
  By Chinese Thoracic Society in 1999 27 35 13,979 27.2 22.2–32.5 97.6  
Hospital level Tertiary 75 58,704 23.6 19.7–27.6 99.0 0.574
  Non-tertiary 16 2703 26.4 17.7–36.2 96.3  
Risk of bias High 9 1286 26.3 17.1–36.6 88.2 0.687
  Moderate 43 17,973 24.6 20.8–28.5 96.8  
  Low 41 52,557 22.2 17.4–27.4 99.2  
  1. CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia
  2. aPooled estimates were calculated by a random-effects model
  3. bThe Q test for heterogeneity was used to compare the incidence across subgroups
  4. cStudies that reported the cumulative incidence of VAP
  5. dA summary of diagnostic requirements for the three published sets of criteria is presented in Additional file 1: Table S5