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Table 4 Associations between variables and HSV2 seropositivity in men, Germany 2008–2011

From: Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control

Variables N Weighteda prevalence % (95% CI) Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
PRb (95% CI) p-value PRc (95% CI) p-value
Age group (years)
 18–24 222 1.2 (0.4–3.9) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 25–34 283 2.8 (1.4–5.3) 2.3 (0.6–9.0) 0.247 2.0 (0.5–7.8) 0.314
 35–44 343 4.3 (2.2–8.2) 3.5 (0.9-13.9) 0.075 3.1 (0.8–12.0) 0.100
 45–54 477 9.4 (6.3–13.8) 7.7 (2.5–24.0) 0.000 5.4 (1.7–17.1) 0.004
 55–64 418 11.4 (8.2–15.7) 9.3 (2.8–31.2) 0.000 6.9 (2.1–23.1) 0.002
 65+ 685 11.0 (8.1–14.8) 9.0 (2.6–31.1) 0.001 d d
CASMIN educational classification
 Low 806 8.7 (6.4–11.8) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.768
 Medium 1069 5.7 (4.3–7.5) 0.7 (0.4-1.1) 0.109
 High 538 8.2 (5.8–11.4) Ref Ref
Income
 Low 656 6.1 (4.3–8.6) Ref Ref
 Medium 1414 7.2 (5.7–9.2) 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 0.374
 High 358 9.5 (6.1–14.4) 1.6 (0.9-2.8) 0.127
Employment situation
 Worker 844 7.9 (5.8–10.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.5) 0.890
 Employee 773 8.1 (6.0–10.9) Ref Ref
 Civil servant 183 7.0 (3.7–12.8) 0.9 (0.4–1.7) 0.659
 Free-lance/self-reliant 293 8.5 (5.6–12.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.880
 Family worker 4
 Other 64 0.9 (0.1–6.5) 0.1 (0.1–0.1) 0.031
Smoking, currently
 Daily 524 6.3 (4.3–9.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 0.761
 Occasionally 151 3.8 (1.7–8.2) 0.6 (0.2-1.3) 0.182
 No, not anymore 899 9.0 (6.8–11.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.8) 0.089
 Never smoked 843 6.8 (5.1–9.0) Ref Ref
Number of other children in household during childhood
 0 257 5.5 (3.2–9.3) Ref Ref
 1–2 999 5.8 (4.3–7.9) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.839
  > 2 1172 8.9 (7.2–11.1) 1.6 (0.9-2.8) 0.087
Visit of nursery during childhoodd
 No 561 10.8 (7.9–14.5) 2.4 (1.7–3.5) 0.000 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 0.036
 Yes 1153 4.4 (3.4–5.8) Ref Ref Ref Ref
HSV1 serostatus
 HSV1 seronegative 548 6.5 (4.6–9.0) Ref Ref
 HSV1 seropositive 1880 7.4 (6.0–9.1) 1.1 (0.8–1.7) 0.494
Degree of urbanization
 Rural 435 6.5 (3.2–12.6) Ref Ref
 Provincial 620 6.1 (3.9–9.4) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.875
 Urban 712 7.7 (5.7–10.3) 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.660
 Metropolitan 661 7.9 (6.2–10.2) 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.582
Region of residence
 West Germany 1675 6.6 (5.2–8.4) Ref Ref
 East Germany (including Berlin) 753 9.2 (7.0–11.9) 1.4 (1.0-2.0) 0.070
German mother tongue
 Yes 151 7.4 (6.1–8.9) Ref Ref
 No 2256 5.7 (3.2–9.9) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.394
Number of sexual partners in last 12 months
 None 486 8.3 (5.5–12.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.594
 1 1613 7.3 (5.8–9.1) Ref Ref
 2–3 155 5.3 (2.6–10.7) 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.395
  > 3 73 6.9 (2.8–16.2) 0.9 (0.4–2.4) 0.905
Use of condoms
 Generally 289 2.7 (1.5–4.9) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Occasionally 314 6.8 (4.2–10.8) 2.5 (1.1–5.7) 0.024 2.3 (1.0–5.1) 0.050
 No 1454 8.0 (6.4–9.9) 3.0 (1.6–5.5) 0.001 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 0.105
 N/a 275 9.9 (5.7–16.5) 3.7 (1.6–8.6) 0.003 1.6 (0.6–4.7) 0.345
  1. In italics: PR is statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aWe used survey weights to account for deviations of the survey sample from the sampling parameters (i.e. age, sex, region, urban/rural region, community size, citizenship and education)
  3. bIf a p-value was <0.2 in the univariable analysis, we included that variable in a stepwise forward variable selection to find a suitable multivariable model
  4. cAdjusted prevalence rates (PR) of variables which stayed in the final model (p-value ≤0.05) are reported
  5. dMen older than 65 years of age were not asked whether they visited a nursery