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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the study participants

From: Haplotype of non-synonymous mutations within IL-23R is associated with susceptibility to severe malaria anemia in a P. falciparum holoendemic transmission area of Kenya

  Clinical groupsa  
Characteristics non-SMA
(Hb ≥ 6.0 g/dL)
n = 207
SMA
(Hb < 6.0 g/dL)
n = 162
P value
Sex, n (%)    
 Male 107 (51.7) 74 (45.7) 0.252b
 Female 100 (48.3) 88 (54.3)
Age, (months) 13.0 (7.8, 19.0) 9.6 (6.6, 16.3) 0.019 c
Parasite/μL 14,711.7 (3257.4, 48,353.7) 15,656.6 (3258.0, 46,598.1) 0.760c
Temperature, (°C) 37.6 (36.8, 38.6) 37.9 (36.9, 38.5) 0.542c
Respiration rate, (breaths/min) 30.0 (24.0, 40.0) 32.0 (28.0, 40.0) <0.028 c
Hematological Parameters
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 9.4 (8.1, 11.2) 5.0 (4.3, 5.5) <0.001 c
 Hematocrit, % 29.0 (24.8, 34.6) 16.1 (13.5, 17.8) <0.001 c
 RBC, × (1012/μL) 4.2 (3.6, 4.9) 2.2 (1.9, 2.7) <0.001 c
 RDW, % 19.6 (16.5, 21.5) 22.9 (21.1, 25.8) <0.001 c
 WBC (×103/uL) 10.9 (9.0, 14.3) 13.0 (9.2, 17.4) 0.010 c
 Platelet Counts (×103/uL) 176.0 (122.0, 282.0) 147.5 (105.0, 200.5) <0.001 c
Confounding factors
Infections    
 Bacteremia, n (%) 46 (46.9) 52 (53.1) 0.035
 HIV-1, n (%) 9 (39.1) 14 (60.9) 0.090
Genetic factors    
 Sickle cell trait 1 (20.0) 4 (80.0) 0.110
 G6PD 12 (66.7) 6 (33.3) 0.310
 Alpha-thalassemia 35 (46.1) 41 (53.9) 0.070
  1. Data are presented as the median (interquartile range; IQR) and n (%) unless stated otherwise
  2. Abbreviations: G6PD Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase, RBC red blood cells, RDW red cell distribution width, WBC white blood cells
  3. aChildren with P. falciparum malaria (n = 369) were categorized as non-SMA (n = 207) and SMA (n = 162) according to modified definition of SMA (Hb < 6.0 g/dL, with any density parasitemia)
  4. bStatistical significance was determined by the Chi-square (χ2) analysis
  5. cStatistical significance was determined using Mann-Whitney U test
  6. Values in bold are significant p-values at a cut-off of p < 0.05