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Table 4 Factors associated with HCV hotspots in Massachusetts, 2002–2013

From: Identifying and characterizing hepatitis C virus hotspots in Massachusetts: a spatial epidemiological approach

Characteristic Unadjusted model OR (95% CI) Adjusted model AOR (95% CI)
Malea < 48.25% Referent  
≥ 48.25% 0.88 (0.68, 1.14) --
Femalea < 51.75% Referent  
≥ 51.75% 1.13 (0.88, 1.46) --
Total population, No. per census tract < 4248 Referent Referent
≥ 4248 0.50 (0.38, 0.64) 1.08 (0.80, 1.47)
Median age, years   0.90 (0.89, 0.92) 1.02 (0.99, 1.06)
High School graduate or higherb, %   0.95 (0.94, 0.96) 0.91 (0.89, 0.93)
Whitea, c, %   0.98 (0.97, 0.98) --
African Americana,c, %   1.02 (1.01, 1.03) 1.01 (1.00, 1.02)
Hispanica,d,, %   1.03 (1.02, 1.04) 1.07 (1.04, 1.09)
Asiana, c, %   1.05 (1.04, 1.07) --
Other Race or Ethnicitya, e, %   1.03 (1.02, 1.04) 0.88 (0.85, 0.91)
Median annual household income, $ < $65,571 Referent Referent
≥ $65,571 0.32 (0.24, 0.42) 0.91 (0.60, 1.39)
Households receiving food stampsf, % < 4.85% Referent Referent
≥ 4.85% 3.01 (2.29, 3.95) 1.83 (1.22, 2.74)
Households living in povertyf < 5.6% Referent Referent
≥ 5.6% to <11.8% 1.01 (0.73, 1.37) 1.19 (0.81, 1.73)
≥ 11.8% 0.73 (0.53, 1.00) 1.38 (0.91, 2.08)
Households with one workerf < 24.6% Referent Referent
≥ 24.6% to <31.0% 0.77 (0.56, 1.04) 1.28 (0.84, 1.95)
≥ 31.0% 0.71 (0.51, 0.97) 1.37 (0.79, 2.36)
Households with two or more workersf < 55.6% Referent Referent
≥ 55.6% to <64.7% 1.01 (0.73, 1.39) 0.80 (0.51, 1.27)
≥ 64.7% 1.27 (0.94, 1.73) 1.06 (0.60, 1.90)
Renter-occupied housing units, %   1.04 (1.03, 1.05) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Pharmacies, no.   0.91 (0.85, 0.97) 0.96 (0.90, 1.04)
Gay bars, no.   1.07 (0.85, 1.35) --
Adult bookstores, no.   1.06 (0.50, 2.26) --
Syringe exchanges, no.   3.87 (0.54, 27.56) 1.61 (0.18, 14.59)
HIV testing sites, no.   1.37 (1.19, 1.57) 0.97 (0.81, 1.160)
Prisons, no.   0.67 (0.31, 1.44) --
  1. n sample size, % percent, $ United States dollar, HCV hepatitis C virus, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, OR odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval. Italicized text represents statistically significant results (p < 0.05)
  2. Adjusted for: number of pharmacies, number of syringe exchanges, number of HIV testing sites, percent of the total population that was a high school graduate or higher, total population, median household income, percent of renter-occupied housing units, percent of households received food stamps, percent of total population that was Hispanic, percent of total population that was African American, percent of total population that was another race/ethnicity, percent of households living at poverty status, percent of households with one worker, and percent of households with two or more workers
  3. aPercent of total population within census tract
  4. bPopulation 25 years of age or older
  5. cNon-Hispanic
  6. dOf any race
  7. eIncludes Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and other races/ethnicities not specified
  8. fLast 12 months