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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants, overall and by sex

From: Cardiovascular disease risk among Chinese antiretroviral-naïve adults with advanced HIV disease

Characteristic All (n = 973) Male (n = 722) Female (n = 251) p-value
Age years 36.0 ± 10.2 35.1 ± 10.1 38.7 ± 10.1 <0.001
Route of transmission     <0.001b
 MSM 382 (39.3%) 382 (52.9%) 0  
 Heterosexual 466 (47.9%) 248 (34.3%) 218 (86.9%)  
 Blood-borne 51 (5.2%) 32 (4.4%) 19 (7.6%)  
 Other/unknown 74 (7.6%) 60 (8.3%) 14 (5.6%)  
Years since HIV diagnosis 1.0 ± 1.6 0.8 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 2.1 0.01
CD4+ count cells/mm3 (N = 969) 229 ± 123 227 ± 124 233 ± 121 0.52
HIV RNA log10 copies/ml (N = 710) 4.69 ± 0.70 4.74 ± 0.67 4.56 ± 0.77 <0.01
Current smoking 231 (23.7%) 223 (30.9%) 8 (3.2%) <0.001
BMI kg/m2 21.6 ± 2.9 21.5 ± 2.7 21.6 ± 3.3 0.82
 Overweight 94 (9.7%) 63 (8.7%) 31 (12.4%) 0.09
 Obesity 10 (1.0%) 5 (0.7%) 5 (2.0%) 0.08
Systolic blood pressure mmHg 115 ± 13 116 ± 12 113 ± 14 <0.01
Diastolic blood pressure mmHg 75 ± 9 75 ± 9 75 ± 10 0.79
 Hypertension 82 (8.4%) 56 (7.8%) 26 (10.4%) 0.20
Blood glucose mmol/l 5.3 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 1.1 0.77
 Diabetes 45 (4.6%) 33 (4.6%) 12 (4.8%) 0.89
TC mmol/l 4.1 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 0.9 4.2 ± 1.1 <0.01
TG mmol/l 1.5 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 1.0 0.21
HDL-c mmol/l 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 <0.001
LDL-c mmol/l 2.3 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 0.9 0.95
 TC >5.2 mmol/l 104 (10.7%) 66 (9.1%) 38 (15.1%) <0.01
 TG >1.7 mmol/l 282 (29.0%) 215 (29.8%) 67 (26.7%) 0.35
 HDL-c < 1.0 mmol/l 299 (30.7%) 249 (34.5%) 50 (19.9%) <0.001
 LDL-c > 4.1 mmol/l 17 (1.7%) 9 (1.2%) 8 (3.2%) 0.04
 Dyslipidemia 503 (51.7%) 388 (53.7%) 115 (45.8%) 0.03
Number of CVD risk factorsa     
 Only one 465 (47.8%) 361 (50.0%) 104 (41.4%) 0.019
 Two or more 194 (19.9%) 164 (22.7%) 30 (12.0%) <0.001
  1. Values are n (%) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. MSM, men who have sex with men; BMI, body mass index; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CVD, cardiovascular disease; NA, not applicable
  3. aComposite of current smoking, obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2), hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia
  4. bNot including MSM category