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Table 5 Results of meta-analyses in Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) and HIV systematic review: strength outcomes

From: Effectiveness of Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) in the context of HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol

Outcomes Sub-Group Comparison of Meta-Analysis # of Individual Studies Included in Meta-Analysis Number of Participants Included in Meta-Analysis Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) 95% Confidence Interval P value of overall effect I2 statistic (p value for heterogeneity) Interpretation
Chest Press (1-RM) Combined PRE and aerobic exercise group compared with no exercise 2 studies
(Fitch 2012 [28]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
44 11.86 kg 1-RMb 2.37, 21.36 0.01a 46%
(p = 0.18)
“Significant and potential clinically important improvement in change in chest press 1-repetition maximum among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
Knee Flexion
(1-RM)
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise group compared with no exercise 3 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37], Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000) [39]
81 10.46 kg 1-RMb 1.64, 19.29 0.02a 91%
(p < 0.00001)
“Significant and potential clinical important improvement in change in knee flexion 1-repetition maximum among exercisers compared with non-exercisers” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 4.67 kg 1-RM −1.98, 11.31 0.17 89% (p = 0.002) Non-significant trend towards a greater increase in knee extension 1-RM among exercisers taking testosterone compared with non-exercisers taking testosterone only.
Leg Press
(1-RM)
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise group compared with no exercise 2 studies
(Fitch 2012 [28]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
44 50.96 kg 1-RMb −13.01, 114.92 0.12 88%
(p = 0.004)
“Non-significant trend towards an increase in leg press 1-RM among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
Knee Extension
(1-RM)
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise group compared with no exercise 3 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000 [39])
81 20.58 kg 1-RMb −4.69, 45.86 0.11 95%
(p < 0.00001)
“Non-significant trend towards an increase in knee extension 1-RM among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 13.09 kg 1-RMb −9.94, 36.11 0.27 97%
(p < 0.00001)
Non-significant trend towards a greater increase in knee extension 1-RM among exercisers taking testosterone compared with non-exercisers taking testosterone alone.
  1. 1-RM 1 repetition maximum, PRE progressive resistive exercise
  2. aIndicates statistical significance; bindicates potential clinically important change in outcome