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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical features of norovirus-positive compared to norovirus-negative diarrheal illness episodes in young Zambian children

From: Norovirus infections in young children in Lusaka Province, Zambia: clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology

  Norovirus positive (n = 23) Norovirus negative (n = 266) p
Sociodemographic and background characteristics
 Sex    0.240
  Female 14/22 (63.6) 127/257 (49.4)  
  Male 8/22 (36.3) 130/257 (50.6)  
 Age    0.797
   < 1 month 0 (0.0) 3/266 (1.1)
  1–6 months 2/23 (8.7) 31/266 (11.7)
  6–12 months 10/23 (43.5) 106/266 (39.8)
  12–24 months 9/23 (39.1) 83/266 (31.2)
   > 24 months 2/23 (8.7) 43/266 (16.2)
 Number of siblings    0.867
  0 8/21 (38.1) 69/210 (32.9)
  1 4/21 (19.1) 53/210 (25.2)
  2 4/21 (19.1) 48/210 (22.9)
  3 2/21 (9.5) 17/210 (8.1)
   ≥ 4 3/21 (14.3) 23/210 (11.0)
 Household electricity 15/23 (65.2) 164/258 (63.6) 0.875
 Household drinking water source    0.793
  Communal tap 12/19 (63.1) 110/244 (45.1)
  Piped to yard 3/19 (15.8) 39/244 (16.0)
  Piped into dwelling 2/19 (10.5) 36/244 (14.8)
  Protected public well 1/19 (5.3) 21/244 (8.6)
  River/stream 0/19 (0.0) 14/244 (5.7)
  Other 1/19 (5.3) 24/244 (9.8)
 Household livestock 3/23 (13.0) 28/251 (11.2) 0.784
 Toilet facility    0.031
  Flush/pour flush to piped sewer 1/20 (5.0) 41/225 (18.2)
  Flush/pour flush to septic tank 3/20 (15.0) 42/225 (18.7)
  Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 3/20 (15.0) 3/225 (1.3)
  Improved ventilated pit latrine 1/20 (5.0) 16/225 (7.1)
  Pit latrine with slab 10/20 (50.0) 78/225 (34.7)
  Open pit latrine without slab 2/20 (10.0) 44/225 (19.6)
  Hanging toilet/hanging latrine 0/20 (0.0) 1/225 (0.4)
 Child ever diagnosed with HIV/AIDS 0/18 (0.0) 1/201 (0.5) 1.000
 Number of rotavirus vaccines received
  0 doses or unknown 13/23 (56.5) 171/266 (64.3)  
  At least 1 dose 10/23 (43.4) 95/266 (35.7) 0.458
  2 doses 8/23 (34.8) 79/266 (30.0) 0.610
Clinical features at presentation
 Severity score by category    0.766
   ≤ 10 (mild) 16/19 (84.2) 156/183 (85.3)
  11–14 (moderate) 3/19 (15.8) 26/183 (14.2)
   ≥ 15 (severe) 0/19 (0.0) 1/183 (0.6)
 Degree of dehydration on admission    0.319
  None 2/23 (8.7) 57/259 (22.0)
  Mild 7/23 (30.4) 55/259 (21.2)
  Moderate 14/23 (60.9) 136/259 (52.5)
  Severe 0/23 (0.0) 11/259 (4.3)
 Duration of diarrhea, days    0.505
  1–4 21/22 (95.5) 203/221 (91.9)
  5 1/22 (4.5) 6/221 (2.7)
   ≥ 6 0/22 (0.0) 12/221 (5.4)
 Max stools/day    0.444
  1–3 14/22 (63.6) 112/217 (51.6)
  4–5 8/22 (36.4) 90/217 (41.5)
   ≥ 6 0/22 (0.0) 15/217 (6.9)
 Blood in stool 0/22 (0.0) 8/216 (3.7) 1.000
 Vomiting 9/21 (42.9) 83/221 (37.1) 0.603
 Duration of vomiting, days    0.593
  0 12/22 (54.6) 139/221 (62.9)
  1 1/22 (4.6) 9/221 (4.1)
  2 5/22 (22.7) 49/221 (22.2)
   ≥ 3 4/22 (18.2) 24/221 (10.9)
 Maximum vomiting episodes/day    0.502
  0 12/22 (54.6) 139/218 (63.8)
  1 0/22 (0.0) 5/218 (2.3)
  2–4 10/22 (45.5) 65/218 (29.8)
   ≥ 5 0/22 (0.0) 9/218 (4.1)
 Abdominal pain 15/22 (68.2) 137/205 (66.8) 0.898
 Caregiver-reported fever 10/22 (45.5) 97/217 (44.7) 0.946
 Maximal recorded temperature, °C    0.877
   < 37.0 15/22 (68.2) 172/245 (70.2)
  37.1–38.4 7/22 (31.8) 60/245 (24.5)
  38.5–38.9 0/22 (0.0) 6/245 (2.5)
   ≥ 39.0 0/22 (0.0) 7/245 (2.9)
 Duration of fever 2.4 (1.2) 2.6 (1.3) 0.605
 Decreased energy/malaise 13/21 (61.9) 147/217 (67.7) 0.586
 Excessive crying 14/22 (63.6) 96/218 (44.0) 0.079
 Admitted to hospital 3/21 (14.3) 32/223 (14.4) 1.000
 Rotavirus positive 6/23 (26.1) 104/263 (39.5) 0.203
30 day follow-up
 Status of child    1.000
  Fully recovered 10/10 (100.0) 120/133 (90.20)
  Partially recovered 0/10 (0.0) 6/133 (4.5)
  Worsening 0/10 (0.0) 1/133 (0.8)
  Recovered but became sick again 0/10 (0.0) 6/133 (4.5)
  1. Bold text indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05)