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Table 1 Main characteristics of hyponatremic and normonatremic patients

From: Hyponatremia is a marker of disease severity in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Total (N = 1196) Na < 135 mmol/l (N = 177) Na ≥ 135 mmol/l (N = 1019) P-value
Age (years)a 36.8 ± 10.7 37.4 ± 10.0 36.7 ± 10.9 0.238
Female gender (n) 445 (37.2%) 90 (50.8%) 355 (34.8%) <0.0001
African ethnicity (n) 612 (51.2%) 125 (70.6%) 487 (47.8%) <0.0001
Homo-bisexual orientation (n) 395 (33.0%) 26 (14.7%) 369 (36.2%) <0.0001
Natremia (mmol/l)b 139.0 (136.0-141.0) 132.0 (130.0-134.0) 139.0 (137.0-141.0) <0.0001
Hospitalization at first contact (n) 332 (27.7%) 128 (72.3%) 204 (20.0%) <0.0001
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (n) 215 (18.0%) 89 (50.3%) 126 (12.4%) <0.0001
CD4 cell count (/μl)a 371.8 ± 275.3 207.5 ± 197.7 400.4 ± 277.0 <0.0001
CD4 cell count < 350/μl (n) 611 (51.1%) 143 (80.8%) 468 (45.9%) <0.0001
CD4 nadir (/μl)a 362.8 ± 267.6 200.8 ± 184.1 391.2 ± 269.9 <0.0001
CD4 nadir < 200/μl (n) 360 (30.1%) 106 (59.9%) 254 (24.9%) <0.0001
HIV viral load (copies/ml)b 71600 (13500–100000) 100000 (55000–313500) 58750 (11800–100000) <0.0001
HIV viral load > 100 000 copies/ml (n) 465 (38.9%) 104 (58.7%) 361 (35.4%) <0.0001
Hepatitis B (n) 69 (5.8%) 14 (7.9%) 55 (5.4%) 0.223
Hepatitis C (n) 69 (5.8%) 12 (6.8%) 57 (5.6%) 0.478
Fib 4 score > 3.25 (n) 77 (6.4%) 28 (15.8%) 49 (4.8%) <0.0001
Anemia (n) 597 (50%) 138 (78%) 459 (45%) <0.0001
Hyperlipidemia (n) 418 (34.9%) 58 (32.8%) 360 (35.3%) 0.550
Mean triglyceridemia (mg/dl)a 111.1 ± 68.5 132.4 ± 79.9 108.0 ± 66.0 <0.0001
Mean estimated glomerular filtration ratec (ml/min)a 112.3 ± 23.3 111.4 ± 29.3 112.5 ± 22.0 0.227
Diabetes mellitus (n) 52 (4.3%) 14 (7.9%) 38 (3.7%) 0.0254
Antihypertensive drugs (n) 39 (3.3%) 4 (2.2%) 35 (3.4%) 0.645
  1. amean ± standard deviation
  2. bmedian (interquartile range)
  3. cestimated using CKD-EPI equation [36]