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Table 4 Multivariable Analyses of Risk Factors for High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in a Sample of Nepali and Bhutanese Women Living in Eastern Nepal

From: High-risk human papillomavirus infection and abnormal cervical cytology among Nepali and Bhutanese refugee women living in eastern Nepal

Risk Factor High-risk HPV
(n = 527)
Abnormal Cervical CytologyƗ
(n = 476)
aOR (95% CI)§ p- value aOR (95% CI)§ p- value
Nationality
 Nepali 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Bhutanese 1.31 (0.59–2.92) 0.5046 1.05 (0.34–3.19) 0.9368
Age, years
 45–69 1.00 - 1.00 -
 19–44 2.06 (0.84–5.04) 0.1141 0.92 (0.35–2.44) 0.8665
Formal education
 None 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Some 0.72 (0.35–1.49) 0.3780 0.93 (0.37–2.30) 0.8662
Husband migrated for work
 No 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Outside the district 3.30 (1.13–9.64) 0.0294 1.13 (0.14–9.00) 0.9112
 Outside the country 1.14 (0.53–2.48) 0.7346 2.92 (1.32–6.49) 0.0084
  1. ƗCervical cytology classification: “Normal” includes: benign cellular changes, WNL results Within Normal Limits, ASCUS Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, or actinomycosis; “Abnormal” includes: ASC-H Atypical Squamous Cells- cannot exclude High-grade, LSIL Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, HSIL High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, AGUS Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance; and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (none in this sample)
  2. §aOR (95% CI) = adjusted odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval); multivariable models included all the variables listed for each outcome