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Table 3 HEV IgG seroprevalence in Nepalese blood donors

From: Hepatitis E virus seroepidemiology: a post-earthquake study among blood donors in Nepal

Variable n tested HEV IgG seropositive Univariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis
n %
(95% CI)
Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p value
Sex
 Female 306 109 35.6 (30.3–41.0) a   a  
 Male 1,539 664 43.1 (40.7–45.6) 1.4 (1.1–1.8) <0.05 1.3 (1.0–1.7) >0.05
Age <0.05   <0.05
 <25 years 735 155 21.1 (18.1–24.0) a   a  
 25–34 years 682 330 48.4 (44.6–52.1) 3.5 (2.8–4.4) <0.05 3.5 (2.7–4.5) <0.05
 35–44 years 315 203 64.4 (59.2–69.7) 6.8 (5.1–9.1) <0.05 7.6 (5.5–10.5) <0.05
 45–54 years 99 73 73.7 (65.1–82.4) 10.5 (6.5–17.0) <0.05 10.9 (6.5–18.3) <0.05
 55–64 years 14 12 85.7 (67.4–44.2) 22.5 (5.0–101.4) <0.05 24.6 (4.9–124.3) <0.05
District <0.05   <0.05
 Bhaktapur 135 74 54.8 (46.4–63.2) 10.8 (5.9–20.1) <0.05 13.5 (7.0–26.1) <0.05
 Kavre 116 52 44.8 (35.8–53.9) 7.3 (3.9–13.7) <0.05 7.0 (3.6–13.8) <0.05
 Kathmandu 1,435 631 44.0 (41.4–46.5) 7.0 (4.1–11.9) <0.05 8.0 (4.6–14.0) <0.05
 Chitwan 159 16 10.1 (5.4–14.7) a   a  
Donor status   
 Repeat 1,264 606 47.9 (45.2–50.7) 2.3 (1.8–2.8) <0.05 1.4 (1.1–1.7) <0.05
 First time 581 167 28.7 (25.1–32.4) a   a  
History of Jaundice
 Yes 213 119 55.9 (49.2–62.5) 1.9 (1.4–2.6) <0.05 2.0 (1.4–2.7) <0.05
 No 1,632 654 40.1 (37.7–42.5) a   a  
Family history of jaundice
 Yes 227 114 50.2 (43.7–56.7) 1.47 (1.10–1.97) <0.05 1.2 (0.9–1.8) >0.05
 No 1,618 659 40.7 (38.3–43.1) a   a  
Drinking Water Source <0.05   <0.05
 Community tap 273 103 37.7 (32.0–43.5) 1.2 (0.8–1.7) >0.05 1.4 (1.0–1.9) <0.05
 Municipality 940 423 45.00 (41.8–48.2) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) <0.05 0.9 (0.5–1.8) >0.05
 Others 309 135 43.7 (38.2–49.2) 1.3 (0.7–2.3) >0.05 1.2 (0.8–1.7) >0.05
 Multiple sources 63 25 39.7 (27.6–51.8) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) <0.05 0.8 (0.6–1.2) >0.05
 Underground 260 87 33.5 (27.7–39.2) a   a  
Drinking water treatment >0.05   
 Boiling 315 117 37.1 (31.8–42.5) a    
 Filtering 1,030 448 43.5 (40.5–46.5) 1.3 (1.0–1.7) <0.05   
 Chemical treatment 49 18 36.7 (23.2–50.2) 1.0 (0.5–1.9) >0.05   
 Multiple methods 203 91 44.8 (38.0–51.7) 1.4 (1.0–2.0) >0.05   
 No treatment 248 99 39.9 (33.8–46.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) >0.05   
Vegetarianism    
 Yes 1,662 701 42.2 (39.8–44.6) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) >0.05   
 No 183 72 39.3 (32.3–46.4) a    
Pork consumption    
 Yes 701 323 46.1 (42.4–49.8) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) <0.05 1.3 (1.0–1.6) <0.05
 No 1,144 450 39.3 (36.5–42.2) a   a  
International travel    
 Yes 565 280 49.6 (45.4–53.7) 1.6 (1.3–1.9) <0.05 0.9 (0.7–1.2) >0.05
 No 1,280 493 38.5 (35.9–41.2) a   a  
  1. aReference group