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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine revaccinations in the elderly: a systematic review

Author, year [Ref] Country Study population*1 Participants (n) receiving primary/revaccination dose Time span between primary and revaccination Serotypes measured (laboratory methods) Funding
Prospective cohort studies (n = 10)
 Tobudic, 20122 [31] Austria Adult renal transplant recipients, 50.5 (±13) yrs 29 (longitudinal cohort) 1 year 1, 4, 5, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F (WHO-ELISA) Oesterreichische Nationalbank
 Dransfield, 20122 [23] USA Patients with COPD, 64 (±10) yrs 42/48 Mean 8.4 (±3.5) years 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F (WHO-ELISA; OPA) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
 Hammitt, 2011 [11] USA Alaska native population, 55–74 years 123/121 (2nd dose) and 71 (3rd or 4th dose) 6–22 years 1, 4, 6B, 14, 19 F (non- WHO-ELISA; OPA) US Department of Health and Human Services - National Vaccine Program Office
 Jackson, 1999 [13] USA Resident population, 50–74 years 901/513 5–13 (median 6) years 4, 14, 23F (non-WHO-ELISA; OPA) CDC and Lederle Laboratories
 Jackson, 2013 [22] USA Resident population with stable underlying chronic conditions, 60–64 years 157–181 (longitudinal cohort)3 3.5–4 years 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F (OPA) Wyeth Vaccine Research/Pfizer
 Manoff, 20104 [25] USA Resident population, 65–88 years 60/60 3–5 years 4, 14, 23F (Merck-ELISA; OPA) Funded in part by Merck & Co and the CDC
 Musher, 2010 [12] USA Resident population ≥ 50 year 437/5445 3–5 years 3, 4, 6B, 8, 9V, 12F, 14, 23F (Merck-ELISA) Merck & Co
 Musher, 20116 [28] USA Resident population 60–93 years 67 (2nd dose)/67 (3rd dose) 10 years 3, 4, 6B, 8, 9V, 12F, 14, 23F (Merck-ELISA) Merck & Co
 Ohshima, 2014 [29] Japan Paitents with COPD, 65–80+ yrs 40 (longitudinal cohort) 8–9 years 6B, 14, 19F, 23F (WHO-ELISA; OPA) Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan
 Törling, 2003 [24] Sweden Patients with history of CAP, 50–88 years 61 (longitudinal cohort) 4–7 (mean 5.3) years 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C, 19F (combined GMCs, non-WHO-ELISA) not reported
Retrospective database studies (n = 3)
 Jackson, 2006 [27] USA Resident population, 50–80+ yrs 279,504/36,888 (2nd dose) and 603 (3rd dose) 1–9+ years (mean after 2nd dose 7 (±3) years) Safety outcomes only Not reported
 Shih, 2002 [30] USA Resident population, 65–80+ yrs 96,327/23,663 6 months-9 years (43% > 5 years) Safety outcomes only Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
 Walker, 2005 [32] USA Alaska native population, 72% ≥ 60 year 144/35 (2nd dose) and 179 (≥3rd dose) 45% ≥ 6 years, 55% < 6 years Safety outcomes only Funded in part by Association of Schools of Public Health
Cross-sectional study (n = 1; telephone interview)
 D’Heilly, 2002 [26] USA Elderly resident population, mean 71 year 455/107 not reported Safety outcomes only Not reported
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, WHO World Health Organization, OPA Functional antibody activity assay, CDC centers for disease control and prevention, CAP community acquired pneumonia
  2. 1In some studies, some analyses (e.g. safety) were conducted in smaller subpopulation; 2Published as randomized controlled trial but treated as cohort study here; 3 Not all patients were considered for all endpoints; 4Substudy of Musher et al. [12]; 5 Number of participants at 5 years: 308/243; 6Extension study of Musher et al. [12]