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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable analysis of risk factors for virological failure

From: Prevalence and effect of pre-treatment drug resistance on the virological response to antiretroviral treatment initiated in HIV-infected children – a EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC joint project

  Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
  HR (95 % CI) P Global P aHR (95 % CI) P Global P
PDR resistant vs no PDR/susceptible 1.78 (0.89–3.54) 0.101   1.42 (0.62–3.24) 0.400  
Sex (male vs female) 1.06 (0.71–1.60) 0.770   1.45 (0.91–2.31) 0.117  
Age (per additional year) 0.89 (0.84–0.93) 0.000   0.88 (0.82–0.95) 0.0005  
Origin (ref Europe)     0.029     0.720
 Africa 0.40 (0.20–0.78) 0.008   1.14 (0.49–2.62) 0.759  
 Asia 0.73 (0.45–1.18) 0.197   1.02 (0.464–2.25) 0.960  
 Other/unknown 1.10 (0.58–2.09) 0.764   0.65 (0.28–1.50) 0.313  
Previous AIDS diagnosis (yes vs no) 1.18 (0.73–1.91) 0.495   1.00 (0.56–1.76) 0.986  
Pretreatment CD4 count (per 100 cells/mm3) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.510   0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.048  
Pretreatment viral load (per 1 log10 copies/mL increase) 1.16 (0.90–1.50) 0.254   0.99 (0.76–1.28) 0.987  
Subtype (non B vs B) 0.85 (0.48–1.50) 0.569   0.70 (0.34–1.45) 0.335  
Year of treatment start (ref: 2007–2008)     0.018     0.818
 1998–1999 3.14 (1.22–8.07) 0.018   1.11 (0.25–4.95) 0.891  
 2000–2002 2.01 (0.71–5.70) 0.190   1.89 (0.48–7.40) 0.361  
 2003–2004 1.97 (0.75–5.21) 0.170   1.29 (0.34–4.96) 0.710  
 2005–2006 1.36 (0.52–3.60) 0.532   1.27 (0.34–4.79) 0.7230  
Antiretroviral drug combination (ref: NNRTI plus ≥ 2NRTIs)     0.0002     0.007
 Unboosted PI plus ≥ 2NRTIs 19.5 (2.68; 1.73) <0.001   3.65 (1.65; 8.05) 0.001  
 Boosted PI plus ≥ 2NRTIs 1.26 (0.56; 2.83) 0.572   1.79 (0.76; 4.57) 0.222  
 Other 1.73 (0.62; 4.85) 0.300   2.65 (0.90; 7.81) 0.077  
  1. All multivariable models were adjusted for sex, age, pre-treatment viral load (log10 transformed) and CD4 count, subtype (B, non B, unknown), region of origin (African, European, Asian, other/unknown), year of treatment start (1998–1999, 2000–2002, 2003–2004, 2005–2006), previous AIDS diagnosis (yes, no, unknown) and HIV transmission risk group (heterosexual, injection drug use, perinatal, other/unknown), initial antiretroviral drug combination
  2. HR hazard ratio