Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with low 25 hydroxyvitamin D level among healthy controls and tuberculosis patients at enrolment

From: Association between tuberculosis, diabetes and 25 hydroxyvitamin D in Tanzania: a longitudinal case control study

  TB patients (N = 167) Healthy controls (N = 358)
  Low 25(OH)D level Normal 25(OH)D level   Low 25(OH)D level Normal 25(OH)D level  
  N = 43 (25.7 %) N = 124 (74.3 %)   N = 111 (31.0 %) N = 247 (69.0 %)  
  N (%) or Mean (sd) N (%) or Mean (sd) p N (%) or Mean (sd) N (%) or Mean (sd) p
Age 35.1 (12.0) 33.3 (10.2) 0.53 35.5 (12.4) 36.4 (13.3) 0.79
Male sex 20 (46.5) 75 (60.5) 0.11 46 (41.4) 144 (58.8) 0.002
History of smoking 4 (9.3) 21 (16.9) 0.23 25 (22.5) 65 (26.8) 0.40
Alcohol misuse 0 (0) 7 (5.7) 0.11 3 (2.7) 19 (7.7) 0.07
Socioeconomic status
 Low 11 (25.6) 30 (24.2) 0.84 17 (15.3) 54 (22.2) 0.2
 Medium 22 (51.2) 60 (48.4) 0.86 57 (51.4) 127 (52.3) 1
 High 10 (23.3) 34 (27.4) 0.84 37 (33.3) 62 (25.5) 0.13
Mean daily sunshine hours during the month of enrolment 8.2 (1.2) 7.9 (1.4) 0.26 7.9 (1.0) 7.9 (1.1) 0.22
Body mass index (kg/m2) 19.8 (3.1) 20.4 (3.9) 0.54 25.8 (5.5) 24.9 (4.8) 0.11
HIV infection 12 (27.9) 39 (31.7) 0.64 6 (5.4) 45 (18.4) 0.001
Previously known for DM 4 (9.3) 1 (0.8) 0.005 0 (0) 2 (0.8) 0.34
Hyperglycemia at enrolment 9 (20.9) 29 (23.4) 0.74 11 (9.9) 26 (10.5) 0.86
Persistent hyperglycemia 6 (14.0) 6 (4.8) 0.05    
TB characteristics
 TB symptoms >3 months 8 (18.6) 13 (10.5) 0.17    
TB
 Smear positive 36 (83.7) 100 (80.7) 0.82    
 Smear negative 6 (14.0) 21 (16.9) 1    
 Extrapulmonary 1 (2.3) 3 (2.4) 1    
Cavity on X-ray 20 (48.8) 66 (54.1) 0.56    
  1. Abbreviations and definitions: 25(OH)D 25 hydroxyvitamin D, Low vitamin D level <75 nmol/l, Alcohol misuse ≥3 drinks per day or ≥6 drinks per occasion, Socioeconomic status assessed with indicators of scholar education, occupation and wealth ownership using factor analysis, DM diabetes, Persistent hyperglycemia presence of hyperglycemia at enrolment and at follow up (measure of glycemia repeated among patients with tuberculosis only). Hyperglycemia fasting capillary glucose >6 mmol/l and/or 2-hCG >7.7 mmol/l, TB symptoms >3months >3 months duration of tuberculosis symptoms before diagnosis.
  2. P values were calculated using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables