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Table 1 Characteristics at baseline of the case-control sample

From: Association between tuberculosis, diabetes and 25 hydroxyvitamin D in Tanzania: a longitudinal case control study

  TB patients N = 167 Healthy controls N = 358  
  N (%) or Mean (sd) p
Age 33.7 (10.7) 36.1 (13.0) 0.05
Male sex 95 (56.9) 191 (53.4) 0.45
History of smoking 25 (15.0) 90 (25.3) 0.008
Alcohol misuse 16 (9.6) 22 (6.2) 0.16
Socioeconomic status
 Low 41 (24.6) 71 (19.9) 0.25
 Medium 82 (49.1) 185 (52.0) 0.64
 High 44 (26.4) 100 (28.1) 0.75
Mean daily sunshine hours during the month of enrolment 7.9 (1.4) 7.9 (1.1) 0.08
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 22.5 (4.2) 25.1 (5.1) <0.001
HIV infection 51 (30.7) 51 (14.3) <0.001
Previously known DM 5 (3.0) 2 (0.6) 0.02
Hyperglycemia at enrolment 38 (22.8) 37 (10.3) <0.001
Persistent hyperglycemia 12 (7.2) 37 (10.3) 0.33
25 hydroxyvitamin D deficiency 3 (1.8) 21 (5.9) 0.04
Low 25 hydroxyvitamin D 43 (25.8) 111 (31.0) 0.22
25 hydroxyvitamin D level (nmol/l) 94.0 (26.9) 89.6 (26.9) 0.08
TB characteristics
 TB symptoms >3 months 21 (12.6)   
TB
 Smear positive 136 (81.4)   
 Smear negative 27 (16.2)   
 Extrapulmonary 4 (2.4)   
Cavity on X-ray 86 (52.8)   
  1. Abbreviations and definitions: TB tuberculosis, Alcohol misuse ≥3 drinks per day or ≥6 drinks per occasion, Socioeconomic status assessed with indicators of scholar education, occupation and wealth ownership using factor analysis, Persistent hyperglycemia presence of hyperglycemia at enrolment confirmed at follow up (measure of glycemia repeated among patients with tuberculosis only), Low vitamin D <75 nmol/l, Vitamin D deficiency <50 nmol/l. Hyperglycemia fasting capillary glucose >6 mmol/l and/or 2-hCG >7.7 mmol/l, TB symptoms >3months >3months duration of tuberculosis symptoms.
  2. P values were calculated using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables