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Table 4 Univariate analysis of potential predictors of mortality and neurological sequelae in patients with tuberculous meningitis

From: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, mortality and prognostic markers of tuberculous meningitis in Vietnamese children: a prospective descriptive study

Characteristic Time to death (N = 100) Neurological sequelae or death (N = 96)
Death/No at risk HR (95 % CI) P Events/No at risk OR (95 % CI) P
Sex
aMale 10/56 (17.9 %) 0.61 0.36 23/54 (42.6 %) 1.11 0.80
 Female 5/44 (11.4 %) (0.21–1.78)   19/42 (45.2 %) (0.49–2.52)  
Age
a<5 years 11/67 (16.5 %) 0.70 0.54 30/64 (46.9 %) 0.68 0.38
  ≥ 5 years 4/33 (12.1 %) (0.22–2.20)   12/32 (37.5 %) (0.28–1.61)  
Duration of symptoms N = 89 1.00 0.4 1.01 0.43
(per +1 day)   (0.98–1.01)    (0.98–1.04)  
Neck stiffness
aNo 1/25 (4.0 %) 5.15 0.11 5/24 (20.8 %) 4.02 0.01
 Yes 14/75 (18.7 %) (0.68–39.16)   37/72 (51.4 %) (1.44–13.18)  
HIV co-infection
aNo 13/92 (14.1 %) 1.85 0.55 39/88 (44.3 %) 0.42 0.43
 Yes 1/4 (25.0 %) (0.24–14.17)   1/4 (25.0 %) (0.02–3.42)  
BCS Grade
age <5 years
aBI 0/43 (0 %) 1.00 <0.001 10/40 (25.0 %) 1.00 <0.001
 BII 3/12 (25.0 %) 27.96 b   9/12 (75.0 %) 9.00  
   (2.71–3760)    (2.21–47.06)  
 BIII 8/12 (67.0 %) 94.64 b   11/12 (91.7 %) 33.00  
   (11.71–12,260)    (5.44–643.12)  
TBM grade
(age ≥ 5 years)
aI 1/16 (6.3 %) 1.00 0.28 2/15 (13.3 %) 1.00 0.01
 II 1/11 (9.1 %) 1.41   5/11 (45.5 %) 5.41  
   (0.09–22.5)    (0.81–36)  
 III 2/6 (33.3 %) 6.26   5/6 (83.3 %) 32.5  
   (0.57–69.2)    (2.4–443)  
Convulsions
aNo 5/61 (8.2 %) 3.46 0.02 20/59 (33.9 %) 2.86 0.01
 Yes 10/39 (25.6 %) (1.18–10.13)   22/37 (59.5 %) (1.24–6.81)  
Decreased level of consciousness
aNo 1/58 (1.7 %) 22.9 <0.001 10/54 (18.5 %) 14.08 <0.001
 Yes 14/42 (33.3 %) (3.01–174.3)   32/42 (76.2 %) (5.46–39.85)  
Focal neurological deficits
aNo 0/53 (0 %) 15.66 0.01 6/50 (12.0 %) 15.4 <0.001
 Yes 4/32 (12.5 %) (1.67–2075)   21/31 (67.7 %) (5.22–51.96)  
Extra meningeal TB
aNo 6/51 (11.8 %) 2.3 0.11 19/57 (33.3 %) 2.87 0.01
 Yes 9/30 (30.0 %) (0.82–6.45)   23/39 (59.0 %) (1.25–6.80)  
TB culture
aNegative 2/14 (14.3 %) 2.72 0.33 4/16 (25.0 %) 4.50 0.16
 Positive 2/3 (66.7 %) (0.38–19.4)   3/5 (60.0 %) (0.56–45.4)  
Hydrocephalusc
aNo 2/31 (6.5 %) 3.46 0.10 6/31 (19.4 %) 9.72 <0.001
 Yes 6/30 (20.0 %) (0.70–17.16)   21/30 (70.0 %) (2.97–32)  
Cranial nerve palsy
 No 14/70 (20.0 %) 5.42 0.10 29/70 (41.4 %) 0.71 0.45
 Yes 1/26 (3.8 %) (0.71–42.2)   13/26 (50.0 %) (0.29–1.75)  
CSF Protein N = 99 1.74 0.002 N = 94 1.65 0.01
(per + 1 g/L)   (1.22–2.49)    (1.14–2.51)  
CSF Lactate N = 77 1.14 0.04 N = 73 1.20 0.03
(per + 1 mmol/L)   (1.01–1.29)    (1.01–1.47)  
CSF Glucose N = 100 0.45 0.05 N = 96 0.65 0.10
(per + 1 mmol/L)   (0.20–0.98)    (0.38–1.08)  
  1. aBaseline category. HR and OR give comparisons to the baseline category. P-value is an overall likelihood ratio test for the significance of the factor
  2. bModel fitted by logistic regression with Firth correction
  3. chydrocephalus diagnosed by MRI brain (43 patients or CT brain 19 patients)