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Table 2 Determinants of mortality among HIV patients on ART using Cox proportional hazard model for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (2007-12) and Rajasthan (2008-13). CI denotes confidence interval

From: Survival outcomes for first-line antiretroviral therapy in India’s ART program

  Andhra Pradesh and Telanganaa Rajasthanb
Variables Hazard ratio (95 % CI) Hazard ratio (95 % CI)
Patient level variables
Sex of patient
  Male 1.36 (1.06–1.73) 1.83 (1.41–2.38)
  Female 1.00 1.00
Age of patients (years)
  16–29 1.00 1.00
  30–49 1.00 (0.77–1.29) 1.00 (0.75–1.34)
  = >50 1.24 (0.85–1.79) 1.25 (0.84–1.88)
CD4 count at ART initiation (cells/mm3)
  < =100 3.36 (2.29–4.95) 3.71 (2.47–5.58)
  101–250 1.94 (1.33–2.82) 1.73 (1.15–2.62)
  >250 1.00 1.00
Co-existing tuberculosis
  No 1.00 1.00
  Yes 1.42 (1.11–1.81) 1.31 (1.04–1.67)
Ever use of alcohol
  No 1.00 1.00
  Yes 1.57 (1.22–2.02) 1.42 (1.09–1.86)
Baseline ART regimenc
  STV based regimen with/without EFV 1.00 1.00
  ZDV based regimen with/without EFV 0.67 (0.55–0.83) 0.62 (0.50–0.78)
Facility level variables
Cumulative ART patient loadd
  Below or equal to state average 1.00 1.00
  Above state average 0.74 (0.57–0.95) 1.37 (1.01–1.87)
Ratio of cumulative ART patients to pre-ART patientse
  Below or equal to state average 1.00 1.00
  Above state average 0.90 (0.71–1.15) 1.62 (1.14–2.29)
Percent of cumulative loss to follow-up patientsf
  Category 1 1.00 1.00
  Category 2 1.16 (0.87–1.54) 1.22 (0.94–1.58)
  Category 3 1.47 (1.06–2.05) 1.40 (1.00–1.95)
  1. aData missing for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana: year of ART initiation for 2; sex of patients for 55; age of patients for 2; CD4 count at ART initiation for 29; co-existing tuberculosis for 2; ever use of alcohol for 2; baseline ART regimen for 421
  2. bData missing for Rajasthan: sex of patients for 21; CD4 count at ART initiation for 29; co-existing tuberculosis for 32; ever use of alcohol for 13; baseline ART regimen for 278
  3. cSTV is Stavudine, ZDV is Zidovudine, and EFV is Efavirenz
  4. dAverage for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana is 4844 and 4307 for Rajasthan
  5. eFor Andhra Pradesh and Telangana is 0.59 and 0.70 for Rajasthan
  6. fThe categories for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are <5.6 %, >5.6–8.4 % and >8.4 %; and <3.1 %, 3.1–6.5 % and >6.5 % for Rajasthan